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// Function template example #include <iostream> using namespace std; // This is a function template template <class X> void swapargs(X &a, X &b) { X temp; temp = a; a = b; b = temp; C++ } int main() { int i=10, j=20; double x=101, y=233; char a='x', b='z'; cout << "Original i, j: " << i << ' ' << j << '\n'; cout << "Original x, y: " << x << ' ' << y << '\n'; cout << "Original a, b: " << a << ' ' << b << '\n'; swapargs(i, j); // swap integers swapargs(x, y); // swap floats swapargs(a, b); // swap chars cout << "Swapped i, j: " << i << ' ' << j << '\n'; cout << "Swapped x, y: " << x << ' ' << y << '\n'; cout << "Swapped a, b: " << a << ' ' << b << '\n'; return 0; }
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Let's look closely at this program The line:
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template <class X> void swapargs(X &a, X &b)
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tells the compiler two things: that a template is being created and that a generic definition is beginning Here, X is a generic type that is used as a placeholder After the template portion, the function swapargs( ) is declared, using X as the data type of the values that will be swapped In main( ), the swapargs( ) function is called using three
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C++: The Complete Reference
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different types of data: ints, doubles, and chars Because swapargs( ) is a generic function, the compiler automatically creates three versions of swapargs( ): one that will exchange integer values, one that will exchange floating-point values, and one that will swap characters Here are some important terms related to templates First, a generic function (that is, a function definition preceded by a template statement) is also called a template function Both terms will be used interchangeably in this book When the compiler creates a specific version of this function, it is said to have created a specialization This is also called a generated function The act of generating a function is referred to as instantiating it Put differently, a generated function is a specific instance of a template function Since C++ does not recognize end-of-line as a statement terminator, the template clause of a generic function definition does not have to be on the same line as the function's name The following example shows another common way to format the swapargs( ) function
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template <class X> void swapargs(X &a, X &b) { X temp; temp = a; a = b; b = temp; }
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If you use this form, it is important to understand that no other statements can occur between the template statement and the start of the generic function definition For example, the fragment shown next will not compile
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// This will not compile template <class X> int i; // this is an error void swapargs(X &a, X &b) { X temp; temp = a; a = b; b = temp; }
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As the comments imply, the template specification must directly precede the function definition
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Te m p l a t e s
A Function with Two Generic Types
You can define more than one generic data type in the template statement by using a comma-separated list For example, this program creates a template function that has two generic types
#include <iostream> using namespace std; template <class type1, class type2> void myfunc(type1 x, type2 y) { cout << x << ' ' << y << '\n'; } int main() { myfunc(10, "I like C++"); myfunc(986, 19L); return 0; }
In this example, the placeholder types type1 and type2 are replaced by the compiler with the data types int and char *, and double and long, respectively, when the compiler generates the specific instances of myfunc( ) within main( ) When you create a template function, you are, in essence, allowing the compiler to generate as many different versions of that function as are necessary for handling the various ways that your program calls the function
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