Old vs Modern C++ I/O
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There are currently two versions of the C++ object-oriented I/O library in use: the older one that is based upon the original specifications for C++ and the newer one defined by Standard C++ The old I/O library is supported by the header file <iostreamh> The new I/O library is supported by the header <iostream> For the most part the two libraries appear the same to the programmer This is because the new I/O library is, in essence, simply an updated and improved version of the old one In fact, the vast majority of differences between the two occur beneath the surface, in the way that the libraries are implemented not in how they are used From the programmer's perspective, there are two main differences between the old and new C++ I/O libraries First, the new I/O library contains a few additional features and defines some new data types Thus, the new I/O library is essentially a superset of the old one Nearly all programs originally written for the old library will compile without substantive changes when the new library is used Second, the old-style I/O library was in the global namespace The new-style library is in the std namespace (Recall that the std namespace is used by all of the Standard C++ libraries) Since the old-style I/O library is now obsolete, this book describes only the new I/O library, but most of the information is applicable to the old I/O library as well
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The C++ I/O System Basics
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Like the C-based I/O system, the C++ I/O system operates through streams Streams were discussed in detail in 9; that discussion will not be repeated here However, to summarize: A stream is a logical device that either produces or consumes information A stream is linked to a physical device by the I/O system All streams behave in the same way even though the actual physical devices they are connected to may differ substantially Because all streams behave the same, the same I/O functions can operate on virtually any type of physical device For example, you can use the same function that writes to a file to write to the printer or to the screen The advantage to this approach is that you need learn only one I/O system
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The C++ Stream Classes
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As mentioned, Standard C++ provides support for its I/O system in <iostream> In this header, a rather complicated set of class hierarchies is defined that supports I/O operations The I/O classes begin with a system of template classes As explained in 18, a template class defines the form of a class without fully specifying the data upon which it will operate Once a template class has been defined, specific instances of it can be created As it relates to the I/O library, Standard C++ creates two specializations of the I/O template classes: one for 8-bit characters and another for wide characters This book will use only the 8-bit character classes since they are by far the most common But the same techniques apply to both The C++ I/O system is built upon two related but different template class hierarchies The first is derived from the low-level I/O class called basic_streambuf This class supplies the basic, low-level input and output operations, and provides the underlying support for the entire C++ I/O system Unless you are doing advanced I/O programming, you will not need to use basic_streambuf directly The class hierarchy that you will most commonly be working with is derived from basic_ios This is a high-level I/O class that provides formatting, error checking, and status information related to stream I/O (A base class for basic_ios is called ios_base, which defines several nontemplate traits used by basic_ios) basic_ios is used as a base for several derived classes, including basic_istream, basic_ostream, and basic_iostream These classes are used to create streams capable of input, output, and input/output, respectively As explained, the I/O library creates two specializations of the template class hierarchies just described: one for 8-bit characters and one for wide characters Here is a list of the mapping of template class names to their character and wide-character versions
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