C++: The Complete Reference in Visual Studio .NET

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C++: The Complete Reference
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basic_streambuf basic_ios basic_istream basic_ostream basic_iostream basic_fstream basic_ifstream basic_ofstream
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The character-based names will be used throughout the remainder of this book, since they are the names that you will normally use in your programs They are also the same names that were used by the old I/O library This is why the old and the new I/O library are compatible at the source code level One last point: The ios class contains many member functions and variables that control or monitor the fundamental operation of a stream It will be referred to frequently Just remember that if you include <iostream> in your program, you will have access to this important class
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C++'s Predefined Streams
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When a C++ program begins execution, four built-in streams are automatically opened They are:
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Stream
cin cout cerr clog
Meaning
Standard input Standard output Standard error output Buffered version of cerr
Default Device
Keyboard Screen Screen Screen
Streams cin, cout, and cerr correspond to C's stdin, stdout, and stderr By default, the standard streams are used to communicate with the console However, in environments that support I/O redirection (such as DOS, Unix, OS/2, and Windows), the standard streams can be redirected to other devices or files For the sake of simplicity, the examples in this chapter assume that no I/O redirection has occurred
20:
The C++ I/O System Basics
Standard C++ also defines these four additional streams: win, wout, werr, and wlog These are wide-character versions of the standard streams Wide characters are of type wchar_t and are generally 16-bit quantities Wide characters are used to hold the large character sets associated with some human languages
Formatted I/O
The C++ I/O system allows you to format I/O operations For example, you can set a field width, specify a number base, or determine how many digits after the decimal point will be displayed There are two related but conceptually different ways that you can format data First, you can directly access members of the ios class Specifically, you can set various format status flags defined inside the ios class or call various ios member functions Second, you can use special functions called manipulators that can be included as part of an I/O expression We will begin the discussion of formatted I/O by using the ios member functions and flags
Formatting Using the ios Members
Each stream has associated with it a set of format flags that control the way information is formatted The ios class declares a bitmask enumeration called fmtflags in which the following values are defined (Technically, these values are defined within ios_base, which, as explained earlier, is a base class for ios) adjustfield fixed left showbase unitbuf basefield floatfield oct showpoint uppercase boolalpha hex right showpos dec internal scientific skipws
These values are used to set or clear the format flags If you are using an older compiler, it may not define the fmtflags enumeration type In this case, the format flags will be encoded into a long integer When the skipws flag is set, leading white-space characters (spaces, tabs, and newlines) are discarded when performing input on a stream When skipws is cleared, white-space characters are not discarded When the left flag is set, output is left justified When right is set, output is right justified When the internal flag is set, a numeric value is padded to fill a field by inserting spaces between any sign or base character If none of these flags are set, output is right justified by default
C++: The Complete Reference
By default, numeric values are output in decimal However, it is possible to change the number base Setting the oct flag causes output to be displayed in octal Setting the hex flag causes output to be displayed in hexadecimal To return output to decimal, set the dec flag Setting showbase causes the base of numeric values to be shown For example, if the conversion base is hexadecimal, the value 1F will be displayed as 0x1F By default, when scientific notation is displayed, the e is in lowercase Also, when a hexadecimal value is displayed, the x is in lowercase When uppercase is set, these characters are displayed in uppercase Setting showpos causes a leading plus sign to be displayed before positive values Setting showpoint causes a decimal point and trailing zeros to be displayed for all floating-point output whether needed or not By setting the scientific flag, floating-point numeric values are displayed using scientific notation When fixed is set, floating-point values are displayed using normal notation When neither flag is set, the compiler chooses an appropriate method When unitbuf is set, the buffer is flushed after each insertion operation When boolalpha is set, Booleans can be input or output using the keywords true and false Since it is common to refer to the oct, dec, and hex fields, they can be collectively referred to as basefield Similarly, the left, right, and internal fields can be referred to as adjustfield Finally, the scientific and fixed fields can be referenced as floatfield
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