The C++ I/O System Basics in Visual Studio .NET

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The C++ I/O System Basics
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Here, the precision is set to p, and the old value is returned The default precision is 6 In some implementations, the precision must be set before each floating-point output If it is not, then the default precision will be used By default, when a field needs to be filled, it is filled with spaces You can specify the fill character by using the fill( ) function Its prototype is char fill(char ch); After a call to fill( ), ch becomes the new fill character, and the old one is returned Here is a program that illustrates these functions:
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#include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { coutprecision(4) ; coutwidth(10); cout << 1012345 << "\n"; coutfill('*'); coutwidth(10); cout << 1012345 << "\n"; // displays *****1012 // field width applies to strings, too coutwidth(10); cout << "Hi!" << "\n"; // displays *******Hi! coutwidth(10); coutsetf(ios::left); // left justify cout << 1012345; // displays 1012***** return 0; } // displays 1012
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This program's output is shown here:
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1012 *****1012 *******Hi! 1012*****
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There are overloaded forms of width( ), precision( ), and fill( ) that obtain but do not change the current setting These forms are shown here: char fill( ); streamsize width( ); streamsize precision( );
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Using Manipulators to Format I/O
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The second way you can alter the format parameters of a stream is through the use of special functions called manipulators that can be included in an I/O expression The standard manipulators are shown in Table 20-1 As you can see by examining the table, many of the I/O manipulators parallel member functions of the ios class Many of the manipulators were added recently to C++ and will not be supported by older compilers
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Manipulator
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boolalpha dec endl ends fixed flush hex internal left nobooalpha noshowbase noshowpoint noshowpos Table 20-1
Purpose
Turns on boolapha flag Turns on dec flag Output a newline character and flush the stream Output a null Turns on fixed flag Flush a stream Turns on hex flag Turns on internal flag Turns on left flag Turns off boolalpha flag Turns off showbase flag Turns off showpoint flag Turns off showpos flag
Input/Output
Input/Output Input/Output Output Output Output Output Input/Output Output Output Input/Output Output Output Output
The C++ Manipulators
20:
The C++ I/O System Basics
Manipulator
noskipws nounitbuf nouppercase oct resetiosflags (fmtflags f ) right scientific setbase(int base) setfill(int ch) setiosflags(fmtflags f ) setprecision (int p) setw(int w) showbase showpoint showpos skipws unitbuf uppercase ws Table 20-1
Purpose
Turns off skipws flag Turns off unitbuf flag Turns off uppercase flag Turns on oct flag Turn off the flags specified in f Turns on right flag Turns on scientific flag Set the number base to base Set the fill character to ch Turn on the flags specified in f Set the number of digits of precision Set the field width to w Turns on showbase flag Turns on showpoint flag Turns on showpos flag Turns on skipws flag Turns on unitbuf flag Turns on uppercase flag Skip leading white space
Input/Output
Input Output Output Input/Output Input/Output Output
Output Input/Output Output Input/output Output Output Output Output Output Input Output Output Input
The C++ Manipulators (continued)
To access manipulators that take parameters (such as setw( )), you must include <iomanip> in your program
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Here is an example that uses some manipulators:
#include <iostream> #include <iomanip> using namespace std; int main() { cout << hex << 100 << endl; cout << setfill(' ') << setw(10) << 23430; return 0; }
This displays
64 2343
Notice how the manipulators occur within a larger I/O expression Also notice that when a manipulator does not take an argument, such as endl( ) in the example, it is not followed by parentheses This is because it is the address of the function that is passed to the overloaded << operator As a comparison, here is a functionally equivalent version of the preceding program that uses ios member functions to achieve the same results:
#include <iostream> #include <iomanip> using namespace std; int main() { coutsetf(ios::hex, ios::basefield); cout << 100 << "\n"; // 100 in hex coutfill(' '); coutwidth(10); cout << 23430; return 0; }
20:
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