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As you can see, when x is used in the expression x + 1002, the conversion function is used to produce the double value Notice also that in the expression x + y, no conversion is applied because the expression involves only objects of type pwr As you can infer from the foregoing examples, there are many situations in which it is beneficial to create a conversion function for a class Often, conversion functions provide a more natural syntax to be used when class objects are mixed with the built-in types Specifically, in the case of the pwr class, the availability of the conversion to double makes using objects of that class in "normal" mathematical expressions both easier to program and easier to understand You can create different conversion functions to meet different needs You could define another that converts to long, for example Each will be applied automatically as determined by the type of each expression
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const Member Functions and mutable
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Class member functions may be declared as const, which causes this to be treated as a const pointer Thus, that function cannot modify the object that invokes it Also, a const object may not invoke a non-const member function However, a const member function can be called by either const or non-const objects To specify a member function as const, use the form shown in the following example
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class X { int some_var; public: int f1() const; // const member function };
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As you can see, the const follows the function's parameter declaration The purpose of declaring a member function as const is to prevent it from modifying the object that invokes it For example, consider the following program
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/* Demonstrate const member functions
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This program won't compile */ #include <iostream> using namespace std; class Demo { int i; public: int geti() const { return i; // ok } void seti(int x) const { i = x; // error! } }; int main() { Demo ob; obseti(1900); cout << obgeti(); return 0; }
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This program will not compile because seti( ) is declared as const This means that it is not allowed to modify the invoking object Since it attempts to change i, the program is in error In contrast, since geti( ) does not attempt to modify i, it is perfectly acceptable Sometimes there will be one or more members of a class that you want a const function to be able to modify even though you don't want the function to be able to modify any of its other members You can accomplish this through the use of mutable It overrides constness That is, a mutable member can be modified by a const member function For example:
// Demonstrate mutable #include <iostream> using namespace std; class Demo {
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mutable int i; int j; public: int geti() const { return i; // ok } void seti(int x) const { i = x; // now, OK } /* The following function won't compile void setj(int x) const { j = x; // Still Wrong! } */ }; int main() { Demo ob; obseti(1900); cout << obgeti(); return 0; } C++
Here, i is specified as mutable, so it may be changed by the seti( ) function However, j is not mutable and setj( ) is unable to modify its value
Volatile Member Functions
Class member functions may be declared as volatile, which causes this to be treated as a volatile pointer To specify a member function as volatile, use the form shown in the following example:
class X { public: void f2(int a) volatile; // volatile member function };
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