Linkage Specification in VS .NET

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Linkage Specification
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In C++ you can specify how a function is linked into your program By default, functions are linked as C++ functions However, by using a linkage specification, you can cause a function to be linked for a different type of language The general form of a linkage specifier is extern "language" function-prototype where language denotes the desired language All C++ compilers support both C and C++ linkage Some will also allow linkage specifiers for Fortran, Pascal, or BASIC (You will need to check the documentation for your compiler) This program causes myCfunc( ) to be linked as a C function
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#include <iostream> using namespace std;
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extern "C" void myCfunc(); int main() { myCfunc(); return 0; } // This will link as a C function void myCfunc() { cout << "This links as a C function\n"; }
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The extern keyword is a necessary part of the linkage specification Further, the linkage specification must be global; it cannot be used inside of a function You can specify more than one function at a time using this form of the linkage specification: extern "language" { prototypes }
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Array-Based I/O
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In addition to console and file I/O, C++'s stream-based I/O system allows array-based I/O Array-based I/O uses a character array as either the input device, the output device, or both Array-based I/O is performed through normal C++ streams In fact, everything you already know about C++ I/O is applicable to array-based I/O The only thing that makes array-based I/O unique is that the device linked to the stream is an array of characters Streams that are linked to character arrays are commonly referred to as char * streams To use array-based I/O in your programs, you must include <strstream> The character-based stream classes described in this section are deprecated by Standard C++ This means that they are still valid, but not recommended for new code This brief discussion is included for the benefit of readers working on older code
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The Array-Based Classes
The array-based I/O classes are istrstream, ostrstream, and strstream These classes are used to create input, output, and input/output streams, respectively Further, the istrstream class is derived from istream, the ostrstream class is derived from ostream, and strstream has iostream as a base class Therefore, all array-based classes are indirectly derived from ios and have access to the same member functions that the "normal" I/O classes do
Creating an Array-Based Output Stream
To perform output to an array, you must link that array to a stream using this ostrstream constructor: ostrstream ostr(char *buf, streamsize size, openmode mode=ios::out); Here, buf is a pointer to the array that will be used to collect characters written to the stream ostr The size of the array is passed in the size parameter By default, the stream is opened for normal output, but you can OR various other options with it to create the mode that you need For example, you might include ios::app to cause output to be written at the end of any information already contained in the array For most purposes, mode will be allowed to default Once you have opened an array-based output stream, all output to that stream is put into the array However, no output will be written outside the bounds of the array Attempting to do so will result in an error Here is a simple program that demonstrates an array-based output stream
#include <strstream> #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { char str[80]; ostrstream outs(str, sizeof(str)); outs << "C++ array-based I/O "; outs << 1024 << hex << " "; outssetf(ios::showbase); outs << 100 << ' ' << 99789 << ends; C++
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