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An Overview of the STL
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Although the standard template library is large and its syntax can be intimidating, it is actually quite easy to use once you understand how it is constructed and what elements it employs Therefore, before looking at any code examples, an overview of the STL is warranted At the core of the standard template library are three foundational items: containers, algorithms, and iterators These items work in conjunction with one another to provide off-the-shelf solutions to a variety of programming problems
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Containers
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Containers are objects that hold other objects, and there are several different types For example, the vector class defines a dynamic array, deque creates a double-ended queue, and list provides a linear list These containers are called sequence containers because in STL terminology, a sequence is a linear list In addition to the basic containers,
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I n t r o d u c i n g t h e S t a n d a r d Te m p l a t e L i b r a r y
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the STL also defines associative containers, which allow efficient retrieval of values based on keys For example, a map provides access to values with unique keys Thus, a map stores a key/value pair and allows a value to be retrieved given its key Each container class defines a set of functions that may be applied to the container For example, a list container includes functions that insert, delete, and merge elements A stack includes functions that push and pop values
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Algorithms
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Algorithms act on containers They provide the means by which you will manipulate the contents of containers Their capabilities include initialization, sorting, searching, and transforming the contents of containers Many algorithms operate on a range of elements within a container
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Iterators
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Iterators are objects that act, more or less, like pointers They give you the ability to cycle through the contents of a container in much the same way that you would use a pointer to cycle through an array There are five types of iterators:
Iterator
Random Access Bidirectional Forward Input Output
Access Allowed
Store and retrieve values Elements may be accessed randomly Store and retrieve values Forward and backward moving Store and retrieve values Forward moving only Retrieve, but not store values Forward moving only Store, but not retrieve values Forward moving only
In general, an iterator that has greater access capabilities can be used in place of one that has lesser capabilities For example, a forward iterator can be used in place of an input iterator Iterators are handled just like pointers You can increment and decrement them You can apply the * operator to them Iterators are declared using the iterator type defined by the various containers The STL also supports reverse iterators Reverse iterators are either bidirectional or random-access iterators that move through a sequence in the reverse direction Thus, if a reverse iterator points to the end of a sequence, incrementing that iterator will cause it to point to one element before the end When referring to the various iterator types in template descriptions, this book will use the following terms:
C++: The Complete Reference
Term
BiIter ForIter InIter OutIter RandIter
Represents
Bidirectional iterator Forward iterator Input iterator Output iterator Random access iterator
Other STL Elements
In addition to containers, algorithms, and iterators, the STL relies upon several other standard components for support Chief among these are allocators, predicates, comparison functions, and function objects Each container has defined for it an allocator Allocators manage memory allocation for a container The default allocator is an object of class allocator, but you can define your own allocators if needed by specialized applications For most uses, the default allocator is sufficient Several of the algorithms and containers use a special type of function called a predicate There are two variations of predicates: unary and binary A unary predicate takes one argument, while a binary predicate has two These functions return true/false results But the precise conditions that make them return true or false are defined by you For the rest of this chapter, when a unary predicate function is required, it will be notated using the type UnPred When a binary predicate is required, the type BinPred will be used In a binary predicate, the arguments are always in the order of first,second For both unary and binary predicates, the arguments will contain values of the type of objects being stored by the container Some algorithms and classes use a special type of binary predicate that compares two elements Comparison functions return true if their first argument is less than their second Comparison functions will be notated using the type Comp In addition to the headers required by the various STL classes, the C++ standard library includes the <utility> and <functional> headers, which provide support for the STL For example, the template class pair, which can hold a pair of values, is defined in <utility> We will make use of pair later in this chapter The templates in <functional> help you construct objects that define operator( ) These are called function objects and they may be used in place of function pointers in many places There are several predefined function objects declared within <functional> They are shown here: plus negate less minus equal_to less_equal multiplies not_equal_to logical_and divides greater logical_or modulus greater_equal logical_not
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