barcode dll for vb net C++: The Complete Reference in .NET

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C++: The Complete Reference
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} cout << endl; endp = remove_if(lstbegin(), lstend(), bind2nd(greater<int>(), 8)); cout << "Resulting sequence:\n"; p = lstbegin(); while(p != endp) { cout << *p << " "; p++; } return 0; }
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The output produced by the program is shown here:
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Original sequence: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Resulting sequence: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
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You might want to experiment with this program, trying different function objects and binding different values As you will discover, binders expand the power of the STL in very significant ways One last point: There is an object related to a binder called a negator The negators are not1( ) and not2( ) They return the negation (ie, the complement of) whatever predicate they modify They have these general forms: not1(unary_predicate) not2(binary_predicate) For example, if you substitute the line
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endp = remove_if(lstbegin(), lstend(), not1(bind2nd(greater<int>(), 8)));
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into the preceding program, it will remove all elements from lst that are not greater than 8
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I n t r o d u c i n g t h e S t a n d a r d Te m p l a t e L i b r a r y
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The string Class
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As you know, C++ does not support a built-in string type per se It does, however, provide for two ways of handling strings First, you may use the traditional, nullterminated character array with which you are already familiar This is sometimes referred to as a C string The second way is as a class object of type string; this is the approach examined here Actually, the string class is a specialization of a more general template class called basic_string In fact, there are two specializations of basic_string: string, which supports 8-bit character strings, and wstring, which supports wide-character strings Since 8-bit characters are by far the most commonly used in normal programming, string is the version of basic_string examined here Before looking at the string class, it is important to understand why it is part of the C++ library Standard classes have not been casually added to C++ In fact, a significant amount of thought and debate has accompanied each new addition Given that C++ already contains some support for strings as null-terminated character arrays, it may at first seem that the inclusion of the string class is an exception to this rule However, this is actually far from the truth Here is why: Null-terminated strings cannot be manipulated by any of the standard C++ operators Nor can they take part in normal C++ expressions For example, consider this fragment:
char s1[80], s2[80], s3[80]; s1 = "Alpha"; // can't do s2 = "Beta"; // can't do s3 = s1 + s2; // error, not allowed
As the comments show, in C++ it is not possible to use the assignment operator to give a character array a new value (except during initialization), nor is it possible to use the + operator to concatenate two strings These operations must be written using library functions, as shown here:
strcpy(s1, strcpy(s2, strcpy(s3, strcat(s3, "Alpha"); "Beta"); s1); s2);
Since null-terminated character arrays are not technically data types in their own right, the C++ operators cannot be applied to them This makes even the most rudimentary string operations clumsy More than anything else, it is the inability to operate on null-terminated strings using the standard C++ operators that has driven the development of a standard string class Remember, when you define a class in C++,
C++: The Complete Reference
you are defining a new data type that can be fully integrated into the C++ environment This, of course, means that the operators can be overloaded relative to the new class Therefore, by adding a standard string class, it becomes possible to manage strings in the same way as any other type of data: through the use of operators There is, however, one other reason for the standard string class: safety In the hands of an inexperienced or careless programmer, it is very easy to overrun the end of an array that holds a null-terminated string For example, consider the standard string copy function strcpy( ) This function contains no provision for checking the boundary of the target array If the source array contains more characters than the target array can hold, then a program error or system crash is possible (likely) As you will see, the standard string class prevents such errors In the final analysis, there are three reasons for the inclusion of the standard string class: consistency (a string now defines a data type), convenience (you may use the standard C++ operators), and safety (array boundaries will not be overrun) Keep in mind that there is no reason that you should abandon normal, null-terminated strings altogether They are still the most efficient way in which to implement strings However, when speed is not an overriding concern, using the new string class gives you access to a safe and fully integrated way to manage strings Although not traditionally thought of as part of the STL, string is another container class defined by C++ This means that it supports the algorithms described in the previous section However, strings have additional capabilities To have access to the string class, you must include <string> in your program The string class is very large, with many constructors and member functions Also, many member functions have multiple overloaded forms For this reason, it is not possible to look at the entire contents of string in this chapter Instead, we will examine several of its most commonly used features Once you have a general understanding of how string works, you can easily explore the rest of it on your own The string class supports several constructors The prototypes for three of its most commonly used ones are shown here: string( ); string(const char *str); string(const string &str); The first form creates an empty string object The second creates a string object from the null-terminated string pointed to by str This form provides a conversion from nullterminated strings to string objects The third form creates a string from another string A number of operators that apply to strings are defined for string objects, including:
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