Obtaining a Null-Terminated String in VS .NET

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Obtaining a Null-Terminated String
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Although string objects are useful in their own right, there will be times when you will need to obtain a null-terminated character-array version of the string For example, you might use a string object to construct a filename However, when opening a file, you will need to specify a pointer to a standard, null-terminated string To solve this problem, the member function c_str( ) is provided Its prototype is shown here: const char *c_str( ) const; This function returns a pointer to a null-terminated version of the string contained in the invoking string object The null-terminated string must not be altered It is also not guaranteed to be valid after any other operations have taken place on the string object
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I n t r o d u c i n g t h e S t a n d a r d Te m p l a t e L i b r a r y
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Strings Are Containers
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The string class meets all of the basic requirements necessary to be a container Thus, it supports the common container functions, such as begin( ), end( ), and size( ) It also supports iterators Therefore, a string object can also be manipulated by the STL algorithms Here is a simple example:
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// Strings as containers #include <iostream> #include <string> #include <algorithm> using namespace std; C++ int main() { string str1("Strings handling is easy in C++"); string::iterator p; unsigned int i; // use size() for(i=0; i<str1size(); i++) cout << str1[i]; cout << endl; // use iterator p = str1begin(); while(p != str1end()) cout << *p++; cout << endl; // use the count() algorithm i = count(str1begin(), str1end(), 'i'); cout << "There are " << i << " i's in str1\n"; // use transform() to upper case the string transform(str1begin(), str1end(), str1begin(), toupper); p = str1begin(); while(p != str1end()) cout << *p++; cout << endl;
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C++: The Complete Reference
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return 0; }
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Output from the program is shown here:
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Strings handling is easy in C++ Strings handling is easy in C++ There are 4 i's in str1 STRINGS HANDLING IS EASY IN C++
Putting Strings into Other Containers
Even though string is a container, objects of type string are commonly held in other STL containers, such as maps or lists For example, here is a better way to write the telephone directory program shown earlier It uses a map of string objects, rather than null-terminated strings, to hold the names and telephone numbers
// Use a map of strings to create a phone directory #include <iostream> #include <map> #include <string> using namespace std; int main() { map<string, string> directory; directoryinsert(pair<string, directoryinsert(pair<string, directoryinsert(pair<string, directoryinsert(pair<string, string s; cout << "Enter name: "; cin >> s; map<string, string>::iterator p; p = directoryfind(s); if(p != directoryend()) cout << "Phone number: " << p->second; string>("Tom", "555-4533")); string>("Chris", "555-9678")); string>("John", "555-8195")); string>("Rachel", "555-0809"));
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I n t r o d u c i n g t h e S t a n d a r d Te m p l a t e L i b r a r y
else cout << "Name not in directory\n"; return 0; }
Final Thoughts on the STL
The STL is an important, integral part of the C++ language Many programming tasks can (and will) be framed in terms of it The STL combines power with flexibility, and while its syntax is a bit complex, its ease of use is remarkable No C++ programmer can afford to neglect the STL because it will play an important role in the way future programs are written
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Part III
The Standard Function Library
C++ defines two types of libraries The first is the standard function library This library consists of general-purpose, stand-alone functions that are not part of any class The function library is inherited from C The second library is the object- oriented class library Part Three of the book provides a reference to the standard function library Part Four describes the class library
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The standard function library is divided into the following categories: I/O String and character handling Mathematical Time, date, and localization Dynamic allocation Miscellaneous Wide-character functions The last category was added to Standard C in 1995 and was subsequently incorporated into C++ It provides wide-character (wchar_t) equivalents to several of the library functions Frankly, the use of the wide-character library has been very limited, and C++ provides a better way of handling wide-character environments, but it is briefly described in 31 for completeness C99 added some new elements to the C function library Several of these additions, such as support for complex arithmetic and type-generic macros for the mathematical functions, duplicate functionality already found in C++ Some provide new features that might be incorporated into C++ in the future In all cases, the library elements added by C99 are incompatible with C++ Thus, the additions made to the Standard C library by C99 are not discussed in this book One last point: All compilers supply more functions than are defined by Standard C/C++ These additional functions typically provide for operating-system interfacing and other environment-dependent operations You will want to check your compiler's documentation
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