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S t r u c t u r e s , U n i o n s , E n u m e r a t i o n s , a n d U s e r - D e f i n e d Ty p e s
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THE FOUNDATION OF C++: THE C SUBSET
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char ch[2]; };
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Now, you can use pw to create the version of putw( ) shown in the following program
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#include <stdioh> union pw { short int i; char ch[2]; }; int putw(short int num, FILE *fp); int main(void) { FILE *fp; fp = fopen("testtmp", "wb+"); putw(1000, fp); fclose(fp); return 0; } int putw(short int num, FILE *fp) { union pw word; wordi = num; putc(wordch[0], fp); /* write first half */ return putc(wordch[1], fp); /* write second half */ } /* write the value 1000 as an integer */
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Although putw( ) is called with a short integer, it can still use the standard function putc( ) to write each byte in the integer to a disk file one byte at a time
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C++ supports a special type of union called an anonymous union which is discussed in Part Two of this book
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C++: The Complete Reference
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Enumerations
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An enumeration is a set of named integer constants that specify all the legal values a variable of that type may have Enumerations are common in everyday life For example, an enumeration of the coins used in the United States is penny, nickel, dime, quarter, half-dollar, dollar Enumerations are defined much like structures; the keyword enum signals the start of an enumeration type The general form for enumerations is enum enum-type-name { enumeration list } variable_list; Here, both the type name and the variable list are optional (But at least one must be present) The following code fragment defines an enumeration called coin:
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enum coin { penny, nickel, dime, quarter, half_dollar, dollar};
The enumeration type name can be used to declare variables of its type In C, the following declares money to be a variable of type coin
enum coin money;
In C++, the variable money may be declared using this shorter form:
coin money;
In C++, an enumeration name specifies a complete type In C, an enumeration name is its tag and it requires the keyword enum to complete it (This is similar to the situation as it applies to structures and unions, described earlier) Given these declarations, the following types of statements are perfectly valid:
money = dime; if(money==quarter) printf("Money is a quarter\n");
The key point to understand about an enumeration is that each of the symbols stands for an integer value As such, they may be used anywhere that an integer may be used Each symbol is given a value one greater than the symbol that precedes it The value of the first enumeration symbol is 0 Therefore,
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S t r u c t u r e s , U n i o n s , E n u m e r a t i o n s , a n d U s e r - D e f i n e d Ty p e s
THE FOUNDATION OF C++: THE C SUBSET
printf("%d %d", penny, dime);
displays 0 2 on the screen You can specify the value of one or more of the symbols by using an initializer Do this by following the symbol with an equal sign and an integer value Symbols that appear after initializers are assigned values greater than the previous initialization value For example, the following code assigns the value of 100 to quarter:
enum coin { penny, nickel, dime, quarter=100, half_dollar, dollar};
Now, the values of these symbols are penny nickel dime quarter half_dollar dollar 0 1 2 100 101 102
One common but erroneous assumption about enumerations is that the symbols can be input and output directly This is not the case For example, the following code fragment will not perform as desired:
/* this will not work */ money = dollar; printf("%s", money);
Remember, dollar is simply a name for an integer; it is not a string For the same reason, you cannot use this code to achieve the desired results:
/* this code is wrong */ strcpy(money, "dime");
That is, a string that contains the name of a symbol is not automatically converted to that symbol
C++: The Complete Reference
Actually, creating code to input and output enumeration symbols is quite tedious (unless you are willing to settle for their integer values) For example, you need the following code to display, in words, the kind of coins that money contains:
switch(money) { case penny: printf("penny"); break; case nickel: printf("nickel"); break; case dime: printf("dime"); break; case quarter: printf("quarter"); break; case half_dollar: printf("half_dollar"); break; case dollar: printf("dollar"); }
Sometimes you can declare an array of strings and use the enumeration value as an index to translate that value into its corresponding string For example, this code also outputs the proper string:
char name[][12]={ "penny", "nickel", "dime", "quarter", "half_dollar", "dollar" }; printf("%s", name[money]);
Of course, this only works if no symbol is initialized, because the string array must be indexed starting at 0 in strictly ascending order using increments of 1 Since enumeration values must be converted manually to their human-readable string values for I/O operations, they are most useful in routines that do not make such conversions An enumeration is often used to define a compiler's symbol table, for example Enumerations are also used to help prove the validity of a program by providing a compile-time redundancy check confirming that a variable is assigned only valid values
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