How the * is matched to its value in Visual Studio .NET

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How the * is matched to its value
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The following program illustrates both # and *:
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#include <stdioh> int main(void) { printf("%x %#x\n", 10, 10); printf("%**f", 10, 4, 123434); return 0; }
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scanf( )
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scanf( ) is the general-purpose console input routine It can read all the built-in data types and automatically convert numbers into the proper internal format It is much like the reverse of printf( ) The prototype for scanf( ) is int scanf(const char *control_string, ); The scanf( ) function returns the number of data items successfully assigned a value If an error occurs, scanf( ) returns EOF The control_string determines how values are read into the variables pointed to in the argument list The control string consists of three classifications of characters:
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Format specifiers White-space characters Non-white-space characters
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Let's take a look at each of these now
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Format Specifiers
The input format specifiers are preceded by a % sign and tell scanf( ) what type of data is to be read next These codes are listed in Table 8-3 The format specifiers are matched, in order from left to right, with the arguments in the argument list Let's look at some examples
Inputting Numbers
To read an integer, use either the %d or %i specifier To read a floating-point number represented in either standard or scientific notation, use %e, %f, or %g You can use scanf( ) to read integers in either octal or hexadecimal form by using the %o and %x format commands, respectively The %x may be in either upper- or lowercase
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Code
%c %d %i %e %f %g %o %s %x %p %n %u %[ ] %% Table 8-3
Meaning
Read a single character Read a decimal integer Read an integer in either decimal, octal, or hexadecimal format Read a floating-point number Read a floating-point number Read a floating-point number Read an octal number Read a string Read a hexadecimal number Read a pointer Receives an integer value equal to the number of characters read so far Read an unsigned decimal integer Scan for a set of characters Read a percent sign
scanf( ) Format Specifiers
Either way, you may enter the letters "A" through "F" in either case when entering hexadecimal numbers The following program reads an octal and hexadecimal number:
#include <stdioh> int main(void) { int i, j; scanf("%o%x", &i, &j); printf("%o %x", i, j); return 0; }
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The scanf( ) function stops reading a number when the first nonnumeric character is encountered
Inputting Unsigned Integers
To input an unsigned integer, use the %u format specifier For example,
unsigned num; scanf("%u", &num);
reads an unsigned number and puts its value into num
Reading Individual Characters Using scanf( )
As explained earlier in this chapter, you can read individual characters using getchar( ) or a derivative function You can also use scanf( ) for this purpose if you use the %c format specifier However, like most implementations of getchar( ), scanf( ) will generally line-buffer input when the %c specifier is used This makes it somewhat troublesome in an interactive environment Although spaces, tabs, and newlines are used as field separators when reading other types of data, when reading a single character, white-space characters are read like any other character For example, with an input stream of "x y," this code fragment
scanf("%c%c%c", &a, &b, &c);
returns with the character x in a, a space in b, and the character y in c
Reading Strings
The scanf( ) function can be used to read a string from the input stream using the %s format specifier Using %s causes scanf( ) to read characters until it encounters a white-space character The characters that are read are put into the character array pointed to by the corresponding argument and the result is null terminated As it applies to scanf( ), a white-space character is either a space, a newline, a tab, a vertical tab, or a form feed Unlike gets( ), which reads a string until a carriage return is typed, scanf( ) reads a string until the first white space is entered This means that you cannot use scanf( ) to read a string like "this is a test" because the first space terminates the reading process To see the effect of the %s specifier, try this program using the string "hello there"
#include <stdioh> int main(void)
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