The economics of cloud computing in .NET

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The economics of cloud computing
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To model your $3,000-server boxes, choose Amazon s Large Instance option. Large instances can be used in a pure on-demand model with no up-front fee for $0.34/hr. More economical options are available if you elect to pay an up-front fee. Because you re making calculations based on a three-year time horizon, choose an option that allows you to lock down a price per large instance of $0.12/hr for three years; Amazon s reserved instance one-time fee is $1,400 but then gives you the per-hour charge of only $0.12. If you plan to run the application 24 x 7, the monthly charge will be $87.65 based on the average hours in a month being 730.48. When you add this to the $38.88/month for the initial one-time fee amortized over 36 months, you arrive at a total of $126.53/month for each large instance. Because you need six of these for your deployment, that works out to about $759/month for the compute resources. You also need to pay for bandwidth. In the colocation example, you purchased an allocation of 10 Mb/s. Colocation bandwidth is typically charged in what is called a 95th percentile billing model. Usage is measured in five-minute buckets over the course of the month, and the bucket representing the 95th largest usage in Mb/s is taken as the measured utilization for the month.
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95th percentile billing model
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Many providers of network bandwidth have adopted a method for charging known as the 95th percentile billing model. Unlike most metered models, in which a certain quantity of usage is measured over the billing interval (say, a month), in this model, the charge corresponds to a measurement of usage near the peak for the month, with the top 5 percent thrown out to remove extreme outliers. To understand exactly how this works, let s consider a 30-day month. To calculate the monthly bandwidth usage, the network provider measures the amount of bandwidth (in megabits consumed in each of the 8,640 five-minute intervals that make up the month) and then identifies the 432nd largest (the 95th percentile of 8,640). It then divides the Mb consumed by 300 seconds to find the megabits per second value. The monthly bill is based on this quantity.
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Cloud bandwidth is typically charged by counting the number of bytes transferred in a given time interval and not by using a percentile billing method. To calculate the consumption equivalent to the 10 Mb/s in a transit (pay-as-you-go) billing model, assume that the 10 Mb/s was chosen as 4 times the average sustained bandwidth utilization, meaning that the e-commerce application runs at an average bandwidth utilization of 2.5 Mb/s. This translates to 320 Kb/sec, which, over a month, translates to around 780 GB of transit. Inbound and outbound transits have different fees, with inbound transit being much cheaper than outbound. Web traffic tends to be asymmetric, with requests that are generally much smaller than responses. From the server perspective, the response is outbound traffic. Again, for simplicity, model all the traffic use as outbound, which means your result overestimates the cost. For outbound transit of less than 10 TB, the per-GB transit cost is $0.17/GB, yielding a cost of about $135/month.
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The business case for cloud computing
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The physical infrastructure for your e-commerce application includes a pair of load-balancers. In a cloud service, load balancing is provided as a service, again in a consumption model. The charge includes two components: enabling the service ($0.025/hr) and a bandwidth-related cost for the amount of data transferred ($0.008/GB). The cost, including bandwidth for load-balancing services, is approximately an incremental $25/month. The redundant firewalls in the colocation example allow for VPN access into the e-commerce infrastructure for secure remote management of the application. Virtual VPNs are also available from Amazon as part of the cloud service offering. The virtual VPN allows for the creation of IPSec tunnels between your corporate infrastructure and the application running in the cloud. The billing model includes a per-VPN tunnel charge of $0.05/hr whenever the VPN tunnel is active, and an inbound and outbound bandwidth charge at the same rates as regular bandwidth usage. In this example, let s assume that the bandwidth used in management is negligible in comparison to the traffic coming into the e-commerce site. Additionally, for simplicity, let s assume you keep a VPN tunnel open to each of the six instances all the time, yielding an additional $0.30/hr or an incremental $216/month. Finally, you d probably like to keep copies of your instances, of which you have three flavors (the web server, the application server, and the database server) stored in Amazon, and perhaps some additional backup storage, which you can generously size at 2 TB. The monthly cost for storage in Amazon s Elastic Block Store (EBS) is $0.10/GB, yielding an additional cost of $200/month. The fees for I/O into the EBS of $0.10 per 1 million I/O requests are additional. Let s be conservative and add $100/month related to I/O, bringing the total cost to $300/month for storage-related services. Adding up all the monthly costs (the instances, the load balancer, the VPN, and the associated bandwidth charges and storage), you get a grand total of approximately $1,435/month (see table 3.5).
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Table 3.5 Public cloud cost calculation: pure OPEX, based on resource consumption Hardware + storage $216/month + + + = $25/month $300/month $759/month $1,300/month Virtual VPN (firewall) Load-balancing service Storage Six large instances + = $1,435 per month $135/month @ $0.17/GB $135/month Bandwidth 10 TB max outbound
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Now, let s see how this compares to the other possible models. If you recall, the three other models internal IT (assuming existing space and power), colocation, and managed services yielded monthly costs of $861, $1,861, and $8,017, respectively. The costs for the cloud deployment model sit roughly halfway between the internal IT and colocation models. The managed model is clearly in a different realm of cost. Note that this is related to the additional management services provided in these types of offerings.
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