Designing and architecting for internet scale: sharding in .NET

Generator QR Code 2d barcode in .NET Designing and architecting for internet scale: sharding

Designing and architecting for internet scale: sharding
QR Generator In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode printer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create QR Code 2d barcode image in ASP.NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Linear Creation In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create 1D image in ASP.NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
How sharding changes an application
Paint DataMatrix In .NET
Using Barcode generation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Data Matrix image in ASP.NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
EAN / UCC - 14 Printer In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create USS-128 image in ASP.NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
In a well-designed application, the primary change sharding adds to your core application code is that instead of code that opens a single database and then does a query, such as this:
Barcode Generator In VS .NET
Using Barcode printer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Barcode image in ASP.NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Generating Code-39 In .NET
Using Barcode creator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Code 39 Extended image in ASP.NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
string connectionString = ConfigurationSettings.AppSettings["ConnectionInfo"]; OdbcConnection conn = new OdbcConnection(connectionString); conn.Open(); OdbcCommand cmd = new OdbcCommand("SELECT Name, Address FROM Customers WHERE CustomerID= ", conn); OdbcParameter param = cmd.Parameters.Add("@CustomerID", OdbcType.Int); param.Value = customerId; OdbcDataReader reader = cmd.ExecuteReader();
Create Barcode In .NET
Using Barcode creation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Barcode image in ASP.NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Printing I-2/5 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode encoder for ASP.NET Control to generate, create ITF image in ASP.NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
The actual connection information about the database to which it should connect depends on the data you re trying to store or access. You add a method GetDatabaseFor() that opens one of many databases based on a customerID parameter. Now, you have the following:
Draw QR Code ISO/IEC18004 In Java
Using Barcode drawer for Java Control to generate, create QR image in Java applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
QR Code ISO/IEC18004 Generation In Objective-C
Using Barcode generation for iPad Control to generate, create QR-Code image in iPad applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
string connectionString = GetDatabaseFor(customerId); OdbcConnection conn = new OdbcConnection(connectionString); conn.Open(); OdbcCommand cmd = new OdbcCommand("SELECT Name, Address FROM Customers WHERE CustomerID= ", conn); OdbcParameter param = cmd.Parameters.Add("@CustomerID", OdbcType.Int); param.Value = customerId; OdbcDataReader reader = cmd.ExecuteReader();
Barcode Creation In Java
Using Barcode generation for Java Control to generate, create Barcode image in Java applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Create QR Code 2d Barcode In None
Using Barcode maker for Online Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in Online applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
We assume here that the GetDatabaseFor() method knows how to map a customer ID to a physical database location. For the most part, everything else should remain the same, unless the application uses sharding as a way to parallelize queries and not just access. The seemingly minor change of adding the GetDatabaseFor() method provides an application with a database architecture quite different from a traditional one.
Recognizing UPC-A Supplement 2 In Java
Using Barcode reader for Java Control to read, scan read, scan image in Java applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Code 39 Extended Encoder In Java
Using Barcode printer for Java Control to generate, create Code 39 image in Java applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Sharding in contrast with traditional database architectures
Create Matrix 2D Barcode In .NET Framework
Using Barcode creator for VS .NET Control to generate, create Matrix image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Creating Barcode In None
Using Barcode printer for Office Word Control to generate, create Barcode image in Microsoft Word applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
To understand how different and how powerful sharding is, let s contrast a sharded database with a traditional one in this section.
Code 128B Creation In Visual C#
Using Barcode maker for .NET framework Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set B image in VS .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
PDF417 Maker In None
Using Barcode printer for Online Control to generate, create PDF 417 image in Online applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
DATA ARE DENORMALIZED
Read GTIN - 13 In None
Using Barcode reader for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Read PDF 417 In None
Using Barcode scanner for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Traditionally, we normalize data. Normalizing means you pull the data apart and relate data elements in a new record to the tables used to store the range of possible standard values. For example, if a user has a relationship status that has a fixed set of possible values (single, married, and so on), normalized data retains only an index into the relationship status table. Data are splayed out into tables without anomalies and then joined again when you need to use them. This makes databases smaller and easier for humans to understand but decidedly non-scalable.
Designing and architecting for cloud scale
But in sharding, the data are denormalized you store together data that are used together. Every user record in this example retains the relationship status with the record and not an index into a single relationship status table. Now, if you need to move the data, it s all intact and doesn t have to refer to a table in a database that s shared by many and acts as a single point of congestion. This doesn t mean you don t also segregate data by type. You can keep a user s profile data separate from their comments, blogs, email, media, and so on, but the user profile data is stored and retrieved as a whole. Although we don t know the topsecret internal workings of Facebook, the company must be employing something similar based on observed behavior and performance. This is a very fast approach. You get a blob of data and store a blob of data. You don t need any joins and can write data with one disk write.
DATA ARE PARALLELIZED ACROSS MANY PHYSICAL INSTANCES
Historically, database servers are scaled up (see figure 5.3). You buy bigger machines for more power. But it s not difficult to reach the limit of the server, the database, or both. With sharding, the data are parallelized, and you scale by expanding horizontally. You can get more work done because it can be done in parallel. And as figure 5.4 implies, there s no limit to how many databases you can put to work.
DATA ARE KEPT SMALL
The larger a set of data a server handles, the harder it is to cache intelligently, because you have such a wide diversity of data being accessed. You need huge amounts of RAM that may not even be enough to cache the data when you need it. By isolating data into smaller shards, the data you re accessing is more likely to stay in cache. Smaller sets of data are also easier to back up, restore, and manage.
Copyright © OnBarcode.com . All rights reserved.