Evolution of IT leading to cloud computing in VS .NET

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Evolution of IT leading to cloud computing
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1960s-1980s: Time-sharing
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Origin of virtual machine concept Mainframe computing costly, so one user s idle time used to service other users
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1990s: Client-server
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IT gets re-invented Client-server model splits tasks between client systems initiating requests and server systems responding over a computer network
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2000s: Grids & SaaS
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Early concepts of utility computing Large arrays of commodity hardware harnessed for big compute tasks. Complex applications begin to be accessed over the internet via web browsers
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2005+: The cloud
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Utility model reborn Utility data center resources made available in on-demand model as a service accessible via a browser on the internet
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Figure 1.5 Cloud computing is best understood as an evolutionary change. The key elements and concepts of cloud computing emerged gradually over several decades through the various predominant computing paradigms.
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Housing of physical computing resources: data center evolution
Over the past four decades, there have been tremendous changes in hardware capabilities, specifically in computing power and storage. The ability to quickly process prodigious amounts of data on inexpensive and mass-produced commodity servers means that a few inexpensive racks of servers can handle problems that were tackled on NSA-sized budgets as recently as the early 1990s. One measure of the progress in computational power is the cost in Floating Point Operations Per Second, or FLOPS. FLOPS are simple mathematical operations (such as addition, multiplication, and division) that can be performed in a single operation by a computer. Comparing the number of operations that two computers can perform in one second allows for a rough measure of their computational strength. In 1976, the state-of-the-art Cray-1 was capable of delivering roughly 150 million FLOPS (megaFLOPS) at the price point of $5 million, or over $33,000/MegaFLOPS. A typical quad-core-processor-based PC today can be purchased for under $1,000 and can perform 50 GigaFLOPS (billion FLOPS), which comes out to about $0.02/MegaFLOPS. Similarly, the cost of storage has decreased dramatically over the last few decades as the capacity to store data has kept pace with the ability to produce terabytes of digital content in the form of high-definition HD video and high-resolution imagery. In the
What is cloud computing
early 1980s, disk space costs exceeded $200/MB; today, this cost has come down to under $0.01/MB. Network technologies have advanced as well, with modern bandwidth rates in the 100 1000 Gbps range commonplace in data centers today. As for WAN, the turn of the millennium saw a massive build-out of dark fiber, bringing high-speed broadband to most urban areas. More rural areas have satellite coverage, and on-the-go, high-speed wireless networks mean almost ubiquitous broadband connectivity to the grid. To support the cloud, a huge data-center build-out is now underway. Google, Microsoft, Yahoo!, Expedia, Amazon, and others are deploying massive data centers. These are the engine rooms that power the cloud, and they now account for more than 1.2 percent of the U.S. s total electricity usage (including cooling and auxiliaries),2 which doubled over the period from 2000 to 2005. We ll present the economies of scale and much more detail about how these mega data centers are shaping up in chapter 2.
Software componentization and remote access: SOA, virtualization, and SaaS
On the software side of the cloud evolution are three important threads of development: virtualization, SOA, and SaaS. Two of these are technological, and the third relates to the business model. The first important thread is virtualization. As discussed previously, virtualization isn t a new concept, and it existed in mainframe environments. The new innovation that took place in the late 1990s was the extension of this idea to commodity hardware. Virtualization as pioneered by VMware and others took advantage of the capacity of modern multicore CPUs and made it possible to partition and time-slice the operation of commodity servers. Large server farms based on these commodity servers were partitioned for use across large populations of users. SOA is the second software concept necessary for cloud computing. We see SOA as the logical extension of browser-based standardization applied to machine-to-machine communication. Things that humans did through browsers that interacted with a web server are now done machine-to-machine using the same web-based standard protocols and are called SOA. SOA makes practical the componentization and composition of services into applications, and hence it can serve as the architectural model for building composite applications running on multiple virtualized instances. The final software evolution we consider most pertinent to the cloud is SaaS. Instead of being a technological innovation, this is a business model innovation. Historically, enterprise software was sold predominantly in a perpetual license model. In this model, a customer purchased the right to use a certain software application in perpetuity for a fixed, and in many cases high, price. In subsequent years, they paid for support and maintenance at typically around 18 percent of the original price. This entitled the
Jonathan G. Koomey, Ph.D. (www.koomey.com), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory & Stanford University.
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