excel 2010 barcode macro 1: Router Basics in Software

Paint EAN13 in Software 1: Router Basics

1: Router Basics
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The objectives of this chapter are as follows: Explain the role of a router in an internetwork Discuss how a router is both similar to and different from other network computing devices Introduce the Cisco router user interface
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Router Concepts
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This section introduces router technology and its responsibility in an internetwork, an accepted networking industry term for a set of many interconnected networks Each individual network will have its own network number that must be unique for that particular internetwork If some of the terms used here are unfamiliar, don't worry; all the ideas presented in this overview are discussed in more detail and explained fully in later chapters Routers direct traffic through an internetwork, based on information learned from network protocols Let's discuss some of the goals of these computer network protocols With an internetwork that has hundreds or even thousands of computers linked together, there has to be some agreed-upon way for those devices to address one another and communicate As a network grows larger, it is not feasible for each computer to keep track of the individual address of every other computer on the internetwork There must be some scheme for reducing the amount of information each computer has to hold locally in order to communicate with every other computer The scheme used involves splitting an internetwork into many discrete but connected networks, which may themselves be split into subnetworks (Fig 1-1) The job of keeping track of these discrete networks is then given to specialized computers called routers Using this method, the network computers need only keep track of the networks on the internetwork, rather than keeping track of every network computer
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Figure 1-1: Interconnection of networks and subnetworks on an internetwork
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The best analogy I can think of for describing how computers on an internetwork address each other is the postal service When you address a letter, you provide an apartment number, street name and number, town, and state In computer terms, messages are delivered by application port number, host number, subnet number, and network number (Fig 1-2) These terms will be discussed fully in subsequent sections
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Figure 1-2: Comparing the Postal Service to an internetwork addressing scheme
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The key concept is that when the postal service receives a letter for delivery to another town, the first thing postal workers do is to send it to the distribution office in the destination town From there the letter goes to the people that deliver for that particular street, and finally, the letter is delivered to its destination Computer networks follow a similar process The message sent on the internetwork initially gets sent to a router that is connected to the destination network number This router, in effect acting as a distribution center for this network, will send the message out on the destination subnet number, and finally the message is delivered to the destination port number in the destination machine Figure 1-3 shows a simple internetwork with routers connecting different network numbers In this figure, networks 1, 2, 3, and 4 have hosts on them and networks 5, 6, and 7 do not Networks 5, 6, and 7 are there purely to connect the routers over a local or wide area network In this internetwork, hosts X and Z must be configured for the same network number (in this case, 2) In addition, the router interfaces that are connected to the same network (for example, interface 2 on router C and interface 1 on router A), must be configured for the same network number (in this case, 5)
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Figure 1-3: Simple internetwork connectivity
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Using the postal service analogy again, routers that are connected to two networks can be thought of as houses that have entrances on two streets In Fig 1-4, we see a house that has two entrances, one on Subnet-1 Street and the other on Subnet-2 Street Both the address on Subnet1 Street and the address on Subnet-2 Street are good for purposes of delivering a letter to the house This is analogous to a router being connected to two network numbers In Fig 1-3, the address for interface 1, interface 2, or interface 3 is good for delivering a message to router A
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