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Troubleshooting Ethernet
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Compared to the problems encountered with serial and asynchronous interfaces, troubleshooting the setup of Cisco Ethernet interfaces is simple The most common problems on Ethernet interfaces have nothing to do with how the router is set up; rather, the problems typically involve overutilization of bandwidth, a high number of collisions, or systems using incompatible frame types Collisions, drops, utilization (as reported by throughput), and frame type are reported on the show interface ethernet 0 command as illustrated in Fig 8-2 Other problems, such as LAN card drivers incorrectly forming frames that are either too long (giants) or too short (runts), are rare these days The major challenges of implementing Ethernet networks are in the areas of physical design and management of cabling systems We will review how Cisco IOS screen displays report typical Ethernet problems Once the Ethernet interface and line protocol report an up condition, which is achieved by connecting the Ethernet interface to a hub, little optimization can be achieved through interface configuration The most significant factor in serial line performance problems we examined was with packet drops You rarely see drops on an Ethernet interface, even on a heavily utilized segment The only time drops are likely to become a factor is when you have a router connecting a heavily utilized FDDI ring and an Ethernet segment The FDDI ring operates at a much higher rate than the Ethernet and may overwhelm the Ethernet interface with packets that need to be switched onto the Ethernet segment If this happens in your internetwork, the same steps used in optimizing a serial interface, ie, of disabling fast switching by use of the no ip route-cache command on the Ethernet interface, and adjusting buffers and hold queues, might help In most cases, drops on an Ethernet interface are rare This is due in part to the way Ethernet operates Any node at any time can transmit on the LAN cable as long as no other node is using the cable Therefore packets are stored in a router for a relatively short period of time before being switched out an Ethernet interface and do not get held in buffers or hold queues On an Ethernet interface, congestion normally displays itself through packet collisions after the packets have been transmitted out of an interface Collisions occur when two interfaces try to transmit a packet onto the network cable at the same time A small number of collisions is expected in an Ethernet network, but the obvious question is what constitutes "a small number" That is different for each network; if you see a collision more than once every 3 to 5 seconds, you should investigate the source The source of collisions usually is the result of cabling that is too long, overly high utilization, or what is commonly referred to as a deaf node, one that has faulty circuitry that keeps it from hearing other nodes using the network cable Again, we have the question of what utilization is too high Again the answer is that it is different for every network If your network has a high percentage of broadcast packets, the utilization at which performance starts to degrade will be lower than for a network with few broadcasts Typically, if the network utilization reaches 40 percent, you can expect problems The way you detect utilization on a Cisco router is by the throughput on the interface This statistic as reported by the 5-minute average is not particularly useful, as short peaks in utilization are not reported If your router is reporting excessive collisions for any reason, you are better off using a LAN analyzer to determine if utilization is the cause of the problem Out-of-specification cabling causes more collisions because a node will listen to the network cable f i d f i b f d i i h h d i i i Th f h h
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for a set period of time before determining that no other node is using it The further away another node is, the greater the propagation delay of the signal from that node to the listening node If a node is further away than the specification states, there will be more instances when a listening node determines that the network cable is free, when in fact the cable is carrying a packet that has not yet reached the listening node Under such conditions, a collision will result when the listening node transmits a packet The only time you should have to look closely at the router Ethernet interface configuration is when the interface and line protocol report an up state and all physical connections to another node are good, but they still cannot communicate The probable cause of this problem is that the two nodes are using incompatible frame types The frame type is displayed on the output of the show interface ethernet 0 command If you know the frame type used by the other node, it should be a simple mater to match them up If you need to communicate with two devices on the same network that use different frame types, you can use sub-interfaces on the router interface and assign different encapsulation frame types for each sub-interface A sample configuration for assigning both the ethernet_ii and novellether (8023) frame types to different sub-interfaces on the Ethernet 0 physical interface for a Novell network is given here Interface ethernet 01 ipx network 1234 encapsulation arpa Interface ethernet 02 ipx network 5678 encapsulation novell-ether As you see, each sub-interface is considered a different network, since it is not possible to assign different frame types to the same interface for the same network number
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