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Bits
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Subnets
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2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
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2552551920 2552552240 2552552400 2552552480 2552552520 2552552540 2552552550 255255255128 255255255192
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16382 8190 4094 2046 1022 510 254 126 62
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2046 4094 8190 16382
30 14 6 2
Table 26 : Class C Subnetting
Bits
Subnet Mask
Subnets
Hosts
2 3 4 5 6
255255192 255255224 255255240 255255248 255255252
2 6 14 30 62
62 30 14 6 2
MAC addresses are used to deliver packets to their destination on one network People often ask, "If there is a guaranteed-unique MAC address on the internetwork, why bother assigning IP addresses " The answer goes back to the analogy of delivering a letter via the postal service, discussed in Chap 1 The postal service is efficient because it uses distribution points, generally located in each city An internetwork is the same in that it uses a router as a distribution point for a network number If there were no IP addresses, each router would have to keep track of the location of every MAC address on the internetwork This soon becomes unwieldy in an internetwork of any size
So, we have IP addresses that are responsible for getting a packet delivered to the correct network (or subnet if netmasks are used), and MAC addresses are then used to deliver the packet locally What actually happens as a packet is transported through an internetwork is that the source and destination MAC addresses change each time the packet travels through a router, whereas the IP source and destination addresses remain constant This is illustrated in Fig 2-8 This figure shows that when PC1 sends a packet to PC2 through the router, the source and destination IP addresses remain constant, but the MAC addresses change as the packet moves from one network segment to another through the router
Figure 2-8: How the MAC addresses used in addressing a packet change as it traverses an internetwork
Putting It All Together
We have covered all the issues necessary to be able to explain how the TCP/IP protocols and reference tables (the routing and ARP tables) cooperate to transport a packet through an internetwork In the following explanation, we take the example of a PC trying to establish a Telnet session with a host machine that is located on the other side of a router Assuming the PC is running a Telnet client application, the command Telnet Sales-VAX is entered into the PC By selecting the Telnet application, the destination port number is set to 23 Next, the hostname Sales-VAX needs to be resolved, meaning that its IP address needs to be found This is done by either referencing Sales-VAX in the locally held hosts file, or requesting the IP address for Sales-VAX from a DNS server on the network Once the IP address has been determined, the PC looks to see if the destination IP address is on the same network (or subnet if netmasks are used) In this case it is not, so the PC will set the destination MAC address to that of its default gateway The PC refers to its ARP table to determine the MAC address of the default gateway If the IP address of the default gateway is not listed with a corresponding MAC address, the PC will issue an ARP broadcast to determine the MAC address Once the MAC address of the default gateway is determined, all source and destination addresses are known and the packet is forwarded to the default gateway The default gateway will now receive the packet, examine the destination IP address and immediately look at its routing table If the destination is on a directly connected segment, the default gateway will reference its ARP table, find the MAC address associated with the destination IP address of the Sales-VAX machine, and forward the packet to its final destination This process is re-examined in Chap 3, when you will have a chance to see the previously described processes work in a Cisco router environment
Summary
In this chapter we defined what a protocol is and explored two models for data communications, the OSI and TCP/IP (DoD) model Specific protocols within the TCP/IP protocol stack were identified and the relevant addressing schemes used by each were explained The discussion on addressing also introduced the concept of the subnet mask and how that can be used to divide a network into many subnetworks Finally, we saw an overview of how TCP/IP protocols and reference tables cooperate to deliver a packet across an internetwork
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