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Figure 4-9: Internetwork with one router operating as the default
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In this internetwork, the Unix machine is effectively delegating all the WAN routing decisions to the WAN router, which is acting as a boundary router to the global network Routing protocols will circulate information about this default route in routing updates as if it were a real network This can cause problems if this one gateway, defined as the default, becomes unavailable With RIP, 0000 is the only way to define a default gateway IGRP takes a different approach that allows real networks to be flagged as candidates for being a default This is achieved by turning on a bit associated with those networks, marking the networks as being a candidate Periodically IGRP scans the routers offering a path to this flagged network, selects the path with the lowest metric, and uses that as the default (Fig 4-10)
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Figure 4-10: Internetwork using Cisco's default-network feature
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In this figure, two routers, router 1 and router 2, both have a connection to the global Internet, which in this case is accessed via the 130600 class B network In this internetwork, the network number that is used to access the Internet will be flagged as the default in both of the routers that are connected to the Internet This is done by entering the following global configuration command into both router 1 and router 2: Router(config)#ip default-network 130600 In this case, an asterisk will appear in the routing table of all routers against the entry for the 130600 network, indicating that this is the default network All routers should choose router 1 as the way to access this network number Now suppose host 1 has router 5 configured as its default gateway This means that it will send all packets not destined for the local network to router 5 Router 5 will have selected router 1 as the way to get to the default network Thus, if host 1 has to send a packet to 2021453, which is on the Internet, it will send the packets to router 5 Router 5 will realize it does not have a route to the 2021450 network and will send the packet to router 1, which it already has chosen as its route to the default network As long as router 1 has an entry to the 2021450 network, the packet will be delivered The concept is that if a default network is identified, and a router does not have a route to a given network, it will send the packet to the default network, assuming that some router on the way to the default network will have a routing table entry for the ultimate destination This keeps local routers, such as router 5 in Fig 4-10, from having to maintain very large routing tables One command that could be confusing is the ip default-gateway command You might think that it defines a default gateway for the routing table to use during normal operation It does not This command is there for upgrading routers remotely; we will revisit it in Chap 7 Before we move on, let's just see the default-network command operate in the lab we used in Chap 3 If we configure the routers as previously shown in Chap 3 and Fig 35, and connect the Ethernet 0 port on router 3 to the hub, we will bring the Ethernet 0 port on router 3 into the up state, which means it can participate in the routing processes Router 1 does not have a routing process configured, but is configured with a static route to 150100 via 120112 Router 2 is running IGRP with network subcommands for 120000 and 150100 Router 3 has a router IGRP process with network subcommands for 150100 and 193110 Finally, router 1 is configured to have the following entry in its configuration: Router1(config)#ip default-network 150100 We want router 1 to be able to ping the 193111 interface on router 3 by sending a ping packet to router 2, which is marked as the router to go to for the default network 150100 This will cause router 1 to mark with an asterisk the entry for the 150100 network in its routing table, denoting that this is a candidate for default
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The routing tables for routers 1, 2, and 3 now look like this: Router1>show ip route C120000 is directly connected, Ethernet 0 S*150100 [1/0] via 120112 Router2>show ip route C120000 is directly connected, Ethernet 0 C150100 is directly connected, Serial 0 I193110 [10018576] via 150112, 00:00:40, Serial 0 Router3>show ip route I120000 [10018576] via 150111, 00:00:52, Serial 0 C150100 is directly connected, Serial 0 C193110 is directly connected, Ethernet 0 If we try to ping 193111 from router 1, the following happens: 1Router 1 sees that the 193110 network is not listed in its routing table It then sees that network 150100 is flagged as default, so the router sends the packet destined for 193111 to the router that knows the way to the default network, that being router 2 2Router 2, which knows about network 193110, receives the packet, so the packet is forwarded on to router 3 3Router 3 receives the packet and delivers it to 193111 4To reply to 120111, router 3 has an entry in its routing table to pass the packet to router 2, which passes the reply packet back to router 1 This feature is useful because it minimizes the number of entries needed in the routing table of router 1 Configuring IGRP The following is a typical configuration to define IGRP as a routing protocol on a Cisco router: router igrp 12 timers basic 15 45 0 60 network 162400 network 193110 no metric holddown metric maximum-hop 50
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The first line defines the routing protocol to be IGRP, for the autonomous system 12 An autonomous system is a network that is administered by one person or one group For most organizations, every routing device will have the same autonomous system number IGRP will not exchange updates with routers from different autonomous system numbers The second line shortens the default value of IGRP timers The values indicated here use: 15 seconds for the basic time constant, for when regular update messages are broadcast; 45 seconds for route expiry, if no updates for that route are received; 0 seconds for hold-down, and 60 seconds for flushing the route from the routing table The third and fourth lines identify the networks directly attached to the routing device being configured The fifth line disables hold-downs, meaning that after the route for a given network has been removed, a new route for that destination network will be accepted immediately The sixth line removes packets if they have passed through 50 routers This number should be large enough to allow all valid routes within your network, but as low as possible to speed up the removal of any packets caught in a routing loop When used with appropriate entries in the interface configurations to identify the correct bandwidth value to use in metric calculations, the foregoing configuration should serve most internetworks well This configuration for IGRP timers is known as Fast IGRP, as it speeds up network convergence time considerably, compared to standard IGRP timers As with RIP, a neighbor can be defined if routing updates need to be sent to a router that is only reachable over a network that does not support a broadcast protocol IGRP will service most networks very well There are only a few instances when IGRP causes problems on an internetwork These problems are endemic to all distance vector protocols If the following scenario fits the description of your internetwork, you should consider reviewing the use of a link state protocol, or the hybrid EIGRP Suppose that your organization is using an InterNIC-assigned class B network number, split into several hundred subnets allocated to geographically dispersed sites Each site has a dial backup link to a central location If the link to a site goes down and the site equipment dials in to the central location, all routers on the network need to know that this has happened, and also the new way to reach this site Triggered updates get sent around the whole network and all routing tables are adjusted A distance vector protocol will send out periodically all the information from its routing table (with some minor adjustments for the Split Horizon rule) If there are enough subnets in the routing table, these periodic updates can swamp a dial-up link Link state and hybrid protocols send updates that contain only the information relevant to the change that has occurred on the internetwork The question of distance vector versus link state is not an easy one to answer We shall revisit how to make this choice at the end of the chapter
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