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Let's now look at a different situation, one in which we have different autonomous systems, both running EIGRP, that need to exchange route information In this example, it is assumed that both
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autonomous systems are under common administration and the use of an exterior gateway protocol is not necessary By default, EIGRP will only send route advertisements to the one autonomous system; if two EIGRP processes for two autonomous systems are running on the same router, however, redistribution can be used to transfer information between each AS routing database Let's say we have a router with one interface in autonomous system 15, network 120000, and one in autonomous system 16, network 150100 Our objective is to transfer information regarding 120000 into AS 16 The route protocol sections for this router are shown as follows: router eigrp 15 network 120000 redistribute eigrp 16 distribute-list 5 out eigrp 16 router eigrp 16 network 150100 ! access-list 5 permit 120000 The third line of this configuration enables the router to redistribute information from AS 16 into AS 15 The fourth line, in conjunction with the final line, restricts the information that is redistributed from AS 16 to only those routes in the 120000 network
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With all the good things we have discussed that are available for the current version of IP (version 4), why is there a need to discuss upgrading to IP version 6, sometimes referred to as IP Next Generation For most private networks, the benefits of upgrading are not yet clear The most commonly quoted benefit of Ipv6 is its increased address space IPv6 uses a 128-bit address field, as opposed to the 32-bit space of IPv4 However, IPv4 has plenty of address size available for even the largest of private networks IPv6 is most likely to deliver benefits to the private network by improved security at the network layer, routing table size reduction (reducing memory and processing requirements of routers) and improved auto-addressing of mobile users IPv6 is a different story for the Internet There are plans to radically increase the number of Internet addressable devices, to make even household and consumer goods Internet addressable That does require lots more address space With that in mind, let's briefly look at how the current form of IPv6 came into being Background Having decided that the Internet needed the capability for drastically larger address
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accepted in the marketplace as Ipv4 The second proposal became known as IPv7, then TP/IX and eventually CATNIP This proposal was centered around the idea of defining a common packet format that would be compatible with IP, CLNP, and IPX This proposal did not however reach maturity fast enough for the IAB The third and ultimately successful proposal started life as IP in IP The basis of this proposal was to define two layers for the Internet, one for the backbone, and one for local deployment This idea was refined in a proposal called IP Address Encapsulation, which became the preferred transition mechanism for Simple IP Simple IP was basically an increase in address space from 32 to 64 bits and a cleanup of obsolete Ipv4 features to reduce the IP header size SIP merged with a proposal called PIP, that improved upon Ipv4's routing efficiency to create a proposal called SIP Plus, known as SIPP By modifying the address space, the IAB accepted this proposal as the way forward and called the protocol Ipv6 IPv5 was not chosen as it had already been allocated to a real time streaming protocol Technical Overview Increasing the size of the address fields is the easier part Coping with IP reachability (by this I mean the ability of routers to navigate a packet through the network from source to destination), in a massively larger Internet is a significantly greater challenge The only known technique that is adequate to contain the routing overhead for a system as large as the current Internet is the technique of hierarchical routing In the absence of any other alternatives, the Internet routing system (both for IPv4 and IPv6 address space) still needs to rely on the technique of hierarchical routing While hierarchical routing certainly provides good scaling capabilities, it imposes restrictions for it to be effective Among the most important restrictions is the requirement that the address assignment should reflect the underlying network topology The practical implication of this is that once assigned, IP addresses need to be restricted to the geographic area of their origin, similar in concept to how the telephone network assigns an area code to a given geographic area This concept is illustrated in Fig 4-28
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Figure 4-28: Hierarchical addressing With hierarchical addresses, ISPs in given geographic locations will have a set prefix Changing ISPs or the physical connections into the Internet will mean renumbering to maintain effective address hierarchy
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Consequently, if a network changes its point of connection to the Internet, it may have to change its addressing as well This immediately causes an issue if a company changes its ISP, as it may require a renumbering exercise to maintain an effective Internet address hierarchy Therefore, an essential precondition for hierarchical routing is the availability of practical renumbering technologies In IPv6, renumbering is handled by more sophisticated autoconfiguration capabilities than IPv4, enabling an IPv6 host to renumber without significant human intervention Although autoconfiguration can simplify the configuration of new hosts, its main benefit is its ability to maintain effective Internet routing hierarchy To simplify host renumbering, IPv6 requires IPv6 hosts to be able to support multiple IPv6 addresses per interface This is similar in concept to the Cisco interface command "secondary IP address," which allows an interface to use two IP addresses The IPv6 mechanism of multiple addresses per interface goes further however IPv6 allows the ability to identify an IPv6 address assigned to an interface as either "valid," "deprecated," or "invalid" A host can use a valid address both for the existing communications and for establishing new communications In contrast, the host could use a deprecated address only for the existing communications, but is not allowed to use such an address for new communications Finally, if a host has an address that is invalid, that address cannot be used for any of the new or existing communications In the process of renumbering, a host's current IPv6 address would become deprecated, and the host would acquire (through one of the IPv6 address autoconfiguration mechanisms) a new (valid) address As a result, all the new communications would use the new address IPv6 address autoconfiguration is supported via both stateful and stateless mechanisms The stateful autoconfiguration is based on DHCP, appropriately modified for IPv6 The stateless address autoconfiguration eliminates the need to maintain DHCP servers With stateless autoconfiguration, a host is expected to construct its IPv6 address by concatenating its MAC address with the subnet prefix that the host learns by using neighbor discovery from the routers that are on the same subnetwork as the host Getting a new address to a device is only part of the story There are still a whole host of issues that are not covered by existing renumbering methods, including: Updating Domain Name System (DNS) databases for all the nodes whose addresses have been changed It would also involve updating the information about the addresses of the DNS servers within the site Renumbering involves changing routers' configuration information (for example, access control list filters and reachability information) Some TCP/IP applications rely on the configuration information (configuration databases) expressed in terms of IP addresses If clients licensing databases are configured for a specific IP address, renumbering a site would involve changing the configuration information maintained by the clients
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None of these issues are covered by available renumbering methods Maintaining effective hierarchy by renumbering still presents significant implementation problems How IPv6 Headers Work IPv6 has kept most of the characteristics of the original IPv4 protocol; the Internet could not have been so successful if the design of IPv4 had significant flaws Thus, the IPv6 header bears more than a passing resemblance to the Ipv4 header IPv6 headers are composed of an initial 64 bits followed by two 128-bit fields for source and destination addresses The initial 64 bits consist of the following fields: Version Class Flow label Length of payload Type Hop limit This is a simplification of the Ipv4 header, as it assigns a fixed format to all headers, removes the header checksum and the hop by hop segmentation procedure The most significant of these changes is the removal of the hop by hop segmentation procedure Previously, if a host had to send data across several media types from source to destination, the possibility existed that a packet would be sent that was too large for some media types to handle For example, sending a packet from token ring network that has a maximum packet size of 4K to ethernet with a maximum packet size of just over 15K In this case, the router connecting the two media types would segment the original packet This does not happen in an Ipv6 network, which uses a procedure called path MTU discovery, ensuring that no segmentation is necessary On top of this fairly simple header, IPv6 supports the concept of header extensions When header extensions are used, the final bits of each header define the function of the next header to follow, except in the case of the final header, which defines that the payload is to follow This principle is illustrated in Fig 4-29 The available extension headers include the following: Routing header Fragment header Authentication header Encrypted security payload
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