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By enabling global IPX routing capability and assigning a network number to interfaces, the basic configuration for a Cisco router to participate in IPX routing is complete It is only now, however, that the real work begins in order to get IPX routing working efficiently over a variety of network media We need to explore some commands that will show us potential problems and see the effects of optimization commands that we will execute The first (and often the most telling) command display is that shown by issuing the show ipx servers command, shown in Fig 5-1 This shows the servers advertising SAP messages to the router If this display is empty and you know there are functional NetWare servers on the same LAN as the router, it is a good indication that the encapsulation set on the router is different from that used by the servers to adver-tise SAPs As you can see, the same server can advertise a number of services; for example, server NWARE1 advertises many services, including types 4, 107, 115, 12E, 12B, and 130 The show ipx servers command output also tells you the source of the information (in this case all entries are by periodic updates), the source network, node number and port number of the entry, route metric in terms of ticks and hops, and the interface through which it is reachable
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router1>show ipx server
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Codes: S - static, P - periodic, E - EIGRP, N - NLSP, H - Holddown, + = detail 11 total IPXservers Table ordering is based on routing and server info Type Name NetAddress Port Route Hops ITF
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P 4 P 4 P 4B
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Nware1 Nware2 SER4004 Nware1 Nware1 Nware1 Nware1 Nware1 Nware1 Nware1 1095U1
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789A000000000001:0451 78A000000000001:0451 789A000000000001:8059
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P 77 P 107 P 115 P 12B P 12E P 130 P 23F P 44C
789A000000000001:0000 789A000000000001:8104 789A000000000001:4005 789A000000000001:405A 789A000000000001:405D 789A000000000001:1F80 789A000000000001:907B 789A000000000001:8600
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E0 E0 E0 E0 E0 E0 E0 E0
Figure 5-1: Screen output of the show ipx servers command
It is quite easy for periodic SAP advertisements to completely overwhelm a WAN link for many seconds Let's perform some calculations to show how this happens A SAP packet can contain up
to seven 64-byte entries, which, along with IPX and other information, gives a total of 488 bytes Let's say that, including file servers, database servers, and print servers, there is a total of 50 NetWare devices on an internetwork Each NetWare device typically will be advertising 10 different SAP services, giving a total of 500 SAPs If we are using a 64 kbps line, let's work out the impact these regular SAP updates will have For 500 SAPs you need a total of 72 packets (71 packets each carrying 7 SAPs and 1 packet carrying 3 SAPS) This means that for the fully loaded advertisements we need 71x488 = 34,648 bytes, plus 49 bytes for the one partially filled SAP packet, for a total of 34,697 bytes To convert this in to a number of bits, multiply by 8, which gives us a total of 277,576 bits This can be viewed in two ways First, we know these updates are sent out every minute, so we can work out the bits sent out per second to get the amount of bandwidth consumed by the updates This is 277,576/60 = 4626 bits per second Alternatively, because these updates are sent out all at once every 60 seconds, we can see how long it will take to send this number of bits This is calculated as follows; 277,576 bits / 64 kbps = 44 seconds
Therefore with this many SAPs communicating on a 64 kbps line, you know that for at least 44 seconds out of every minute, total bandwidth will be consumed by the SAP advertisements Now let's look at the regular RIP updates To view the known routes, issue the show ipx route command shown in Fig 5-2, which also gives an explanation of the display entries
router1>show ipx route Codes: C - connected primary network, c - connected secondary network S - Static, F - Floating static, L - Local (internal), W - IPXWAN, R - RIP, E - EIGRP, N NLSP, X - External, s - seconds, u - uses 3 total IPX routes Up to 1 parallel paths and 16 hops allowed No default route known C800(SAP)E0
C111(PPP)As1 R789A[03/02] via89000000010062a30sE0 Figure 5-2: Screen output of the show ipx route command
This display is similar to the IP routing table examined earlier The table shows how the route was discovered, what the network number is, which interface is nearest that network, and the next hop, if appropriate Each RIP update contains 40 bytes of header and up to fifty 8-byte network numbers If there are 200 RIP routes, we get four full RIP packets, which is 4x440 = 1760 bytes To convert this into bits, we multiply by 8, which yields 14,080 If you divide 14,080 by 60, this is 235 bits per second Transferring this amount of data at 64 kbps speed takes less than a second, so you can see that SAP updates are far more of a concern than are RIP updates To view a summary of the IPX traffic that has passed through this interface, issue the show ipx traffic command shown in Fig 5-3
router1>show ipx traffic System traffic for 0000000000001 System-Name: router1 Rcvd:155098 total, 40 format errors, 0 checksum errors, 0 bad hop count, 90 packets pitched, 90212 local destination, o multicast Bcast:90345 received, 14789 sent 1333 encapsulation failed, 305 no route SAP:470 SAP requests, 231 SAP replies, 7 servers 18332 SAP advertisements received, 7200 sent 0 SAP flash updates sent, O SAP poison sent 0 SAP format errors RIP:439 RIP requests, 403 RIP replies, 3 routes
59338 RIP advertisements received, 4769 sent 620 RIP flash updates sent, 0 RIP poison sent 0 RIP format errors Echo:Rcvd 0 requests 0 replies Sent 0 requests, 0 replies 760 unknown: 0 no socket, 0 filtered, 33 no helper 0 SAPs throttled, freed NDB len 0 Figure 5-3: Screen output of the show ipx traffic command
This display is useful for viewing the amount of traffic generated by all the different types of NetWare communications protocols It shows 158,054 packets received, of which 18,644 were SAPs This is normal, but if SAPs become 20 percent of traffic, you should seek to reduce the SAPs by the methods discussed later in this chapter
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