barcode excel 2013 font Optimizing Periodic NetWare Maintenance Traffic in Software

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Novell NetWare is a complete network operating system and, as such, utilizes periodic updates in addition to those generated to keep routing and service tables updated Although these updates do not consume significant bandwidth, they can be annoying if a dial-on-demand routing (DDR) solution is chosen for economic reasons Clearly, if a local NetWare server is constantly sending updates to a remote server, the DDR link will be established and costs incurred even when no user data needs to be transmitted These periodic updates comprise the following: NetWare IPX watchdog SPX keep-alives NetWare serialization packets NetWare 4 time synchronization traffic The NetWare operating system has many protocols that are considered part of the NetWare Core Protocol; watchdog packets are considered part of the NCP set The purpose of the watchdog packet is to monitor active connections and to terminate connections if the client machine does not respond appropriately to a watchdog packet request The only two parameters of interest that can be altered for the watchdog service defined on the NetWare file server itself are in the AUTOEXECNCF file as follows: set delay between watchdog packets = y set number of watchdog packets = z The default for y is 593 seconds, but can vary between 15 seconds and 20 minutes The default for z is 10, but is configurable anywhere between 5 and 100 Clearly if these values are increased, less use will be made of WAN links by the watchdog protocol In place of changing these parameters on the server, you can configure a router to respond to the server's watchdog packets on behalf of a remote client This is termed IPX spoofing The obvious downside to doing this is that a router local to the NetWare server may keep connections open for remote client PCs that are in fact no longer in use The effect this has is to use up one of the concurrent user accesses allowed within the NetWare server license (Typically a NetWare server is sold with a license for 100 or 250 concurrent users) To enable IPX spoofing, input the following global configuration command (There are no arguments to specify for this command) Router1(config)#ipx watchdog spoof
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The next periodic update we will examine is the SPX keep-alive SPX is a connection-oriented protocol typically used by a network printer process (such as RPRINTER) or an application gateway (such as Novell's SAA gateway) To maintain an SPX connection during periods when no data is transmitted, both ends of an SPX connection transmit keep-alive messages every 3 seconds by default (This is the NetWare 3x default; NetWare 4x sends SPX keep-alives every 6 seconds by default) Keep-alive values on the server side cannot be user-configured, but they can be set on the client side, from a default of every 3 seconds up to one keep-alive every hour An alternative to changing this default in the NetWare software is to implement SPX keep-alive spoofing on Cisco routers positioned between a client PC and NetWare server Consider Fig 5-4
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Figure 5-4: Network configuration for IPX/SPX spoofing
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In this illustration, router 1 is spoofing onto IPX network A for the NetWare server and router 2 is spoofing onto IPX network C for the client PC SPX processes, and SPX keep-alives are kept off the WAN SPX spoofing is implemented using the following global configuration commands: Router1(config)#ipx spx-spoof Router1(config)#ipx spx-idle-time 90 The first command enables SPX spoofing and the second command specifies the amount of time in seconds (90 in this case) before spoofing of keep-alive packets can occur Novell implements a 66-second unicast to all servers on the same internetwork to provide for comparison of license serialization numbers on servers in use This is there to protect Novell from a user reinstalling the same software license on multiple servers on the same internetwork If a serialization packet is detected that has the same license number as the server receiving the packet, a server copyright violation message is broadcast to all users and the NetWare server consoles There are no specific commands to stop these packets within the Cisco IOS, and the only way to block these serialization packets traversing a WAN is to use an access list NetWare 41 Considerations The main administrative problem with NetWare 3 was that user d fi d b i I LAN i i lh d d
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accounts were defined on a per-server basis In a LAN servicing several hundred or more users, several NetWare servers would have to be deployed and users would have to be given specific accounts on every NetWare server to which they needed access This forced network managers to implement a maze of login commands to enable each user to get access to all the shared data needed To eliminate this problem, Novell introduced NetWare Directory Services (NDS), which replaced the flat-file user information database (the bindery) with a hierarchical, object-oriented replicated database The advantage is that with the same database of user information on every server, a user can gain access to all resources needed with just one logon With replication comes the problem of ensuring synchronization among these databases To ensure synchronization, NetWare 41 timestamps each event with a unique code (An event is a change to the database) The timestamps are used to establish the correct order of events, set expiration dates, and record time values NetWare 41 can define up to four different time servers: 1Reference time server passes the time derived from its own hardware clock to Secondary time servers and client PCs 2Primary time server synchronizes network time with reference to at least one other Primary or Reference time server 3Secondary time server receives the time from a Reference or Primary and passes it on to client PCs 4Single-reference time server is used on networks with only one server and cannot coexist with Primary or Reference time servers The Single-reference time server uses the time from its own hardware clock and passes it on to Secondary time servers and client PCs This synchronization of time between servers across a network can add to network congestion and activate dial-on-demand links unnecessarily Novell offers a TIMESYNCNLM program that can be loaded on a NetWare 41 server to reduce the amount of time synchronization packet traffic The best way to limit the amount of this type of traffic over WAN links is to locate time servers appropriately on the network (Fig 5-5)
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