barcode excel 2013 font Bridging Nonroutable Protocols in Software

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Bridging Nonroutable Protocols
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Some networking systems, such as Digital Equipment's LAT (Local Area Transport) do not define network numbers in packets sent out on a network If a packet does not have a specific destination network number, a router will assume that the packet is destined for the local segment and will not forward it to any other network In most cases this is the right thing to do; there are some instances, however, in which two devices need to communicate using a nonroutable protocol, and a router stands between them One option to enable these two machines to communicate is to use the bridging capability of Cisco routers
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Figure 5-10: Forwarding NetBIOS packets through a Cisco router
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INTERFACE ETHERNET 0 IPX NETWORK AAA IPX TYPE-20-PROPAGATION INTERFACE ETHERNET 1 IPX NETWORK BBB INTERFACE ETHERNET 2 IPX NETWORK CCC IPX TYPE-20-PROPAGATION Figure 5-11: Configuration for the router in Figure 5-10
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Before we get into the specifics of using a Cisco router as a bridge, let's review the operation of the two types of bridge that have been widely implemented in the market, transparent bridges and source route bridges What has ended up being available in the marketplace are bridges that
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typically do both transparent and source route bridging A device acting as this type of bridge will act as a transparent bridge if the layer 2 header does not contain a Routing Information Field, and will act as a pure source routing bridge if there is a Routing Information Field The following will discuss the operation of transparent and source route bridging separately
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Transparent Bridges
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The transparent bridge was developed to allow protocols that were designed to operate on only a single LAN to work in a multi-LAN environment Protocols of this type expect a packet to be received by the destination workstation to arrive unaltered by its progress through the LAN The basic job of a transparent bridge, therefore, is to receive packets, store them, and retransmit them on other LANs connected to the bridge, making it useful for extending the limits of a LAN In a Token-Ring environment, a transparent bridge can increase the number of workstations on a ring Each time a token gets passed from workstation to workstation on a ring, the clock signal degrades A transparent bridge can be used to connect two physical rings and allow more workstations to be connected because it uses a different clock and token for each ring As far as any layer 3 software is concerned, however, the two rings are still on the same network number A transparent bridge will do more than this, though, because a learning bridge will "learn" which MAC addresses of workstations are on which LAN cable and either forward or block packets according to a list of MAC addresses associated with interfaces kept in the bridge Let's examine how the bridge operates in the multi-LAN environment of Fig 5-12
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Figure 5-12: Transparent bridge operation
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First it must be noted that as far as any layer 3 protocols, such as IP or IPX are concerned, LAN 1 and LAN 2 in this figure are the same network number The process operated by the transparent bridge is as follows: Listen to every packet on every interface For each packet heard, keep track of the packet's source MAC address and the interface from which it originated This is referred to as a station cache
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Look at the destination field in the MAC header If this address is not found in the station cache, forward the packet to all interfaces other than the one on which the packet was received If the
originating the packet, the packet is dropped; otherwise duplicate delivery of packets for that packet would result Keep track of the age of each entry in the station cache An entry is deleted after a period of time if no packets are received with that address as the source address This ensures that if a workstation is moved from one LAN to another, the "old" entry in the station cache associating that address with a now incorrect interface is deleted Using this logic, and assuming that workstations A, B, C, and D in Fig 5-12 all communicate with one another, the bridge will produce a station cache that associates workstations A and B with interface 1, then C and D with interface 2 This potentially relieves congestion in a network All traffic that originates at and is destined for LAN 1 will not be seen on LAN 2 and vice versa This form of bridging works well for any LAN topology that does not include multiple paths between two LANs We know that multiple paths between network segments is desirable to maintain connectivity if one path fails for one reason or another Let's look at what a simple transparent bridge would do if implemented in a LAN environment such as that shown in Fig 5-13
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