Figure 6-1: Typical frame relay network configuration in Software

Painting EAN13 in Software Figure 6-1: Typical frame relay network configuration

Figure 6-1: Typical frame relay network configuration
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Router 1 connects the central site with the servers to a commercial frame relay service Routers 2 through 6 connect remote branches to the same frame relay service Frame relay is not a broadcast medium, so any routing updates, or SAP updates for IPX traffic, need to be sent pointto-point to each location This can tax the link from router 1 into the frame relay network as the number of branches grows It is not uncommon to find 50 percent or more of a central site router's bandwidth into the frame relay service consumed with routing information packets This situation can be avoided, as we shall see later, but requires careful design and a good knowledge of how the interconnected systems work Frame relay should never be considered a plug-and-play technology
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Frame Relay Terms
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The first frame relay term you need to understand, the DLCI, already has been introduced A DLCI is supplied for each end of a PVC by the frame relay provider A DLCI number is used to identify each PVC defined at a location At the central location shown in Fig 6-1, there are DLCI numbers 1, 4, 6, 8, and 10 It is best to think of each DLCI as identifying a pipe that leads to a specific protocol address For example, DLCI 1 leads to the IP address of Serial 0 on router 2, DLCI 4 leads to the IP address of Serial 0 on router 3, and so forth If you are implementing a TCP/IP solution over frame relay, remember that frame relay is a layer 2
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Features" As with most networking technologies, there are several configuration options, and here we will look at the most common Basic frame relay is depicted in Fig 6-2 and merely connects two locations together over a PVC This is not very different from connecting these sites together via a leased line The only difference is the fact that the bandwidth between the two sites is shared with other users of the frame relay network
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Figure 6-2: Simple frame relay connectivity
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In this figure, router 1 is connected to router 2 via a PVC, which is defined within the frame relay cloud as existing from DLCI 1 to DLCI 2 In basic frame relay, other locations within the frame relay cloud could use these DLCI numbers because a DLCI has only local significance This type of frame relay use is limited and has been superseded by use of what is known as the LMI extensions LMI stands for Local Management Interface and provides additional frame relay features that include: Use of Inverse ARP to automatically determine the protocol address of the device on the remote end of a DLCI Simple flow control to provide XON/XOFF-type flow control for the interface as a whole This is intended for applications communicating over frame relay that cannot use the congestion flags sent by frame relay networks Multicasting to allow the sender to send one copy of a frame that will be delivered to multiple destinations This is useful for routing update and address resolution protocol traffic Virtual Circuit Status messaging to allow LMI-enabled network connections to maintain information about the status of PVCs across the network, notifying other nodes if one node becomes unreachable Cisco joined with Northern Telecom, Stratacom, and DEC to define an LMI standard to deliver these benefits in anticipation of an open standard for LMI The other commonly implemented LMI type is now ANSI, which was defined by that standards body some time after the four vendors above released theirs
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In addition to the LMI type, you can set the frame relay encapsulation to either Cisco or IETF if you are connecting to another vendor's equipment across a frame relay network Cisco did not create these additional options to make an open standard proprietary or to make life difficult Rather, Cisco created these standards in order to deliver benefits to users prior to standards bodies making a workable definition available to those wanting to deploy frame relay networks
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