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As stated previously, frame relay is a technology that connects two end points across a network These end points are identified within the network by DLCI numbers; the DLCI-to-DLCI connection is known as a PVC We will examine configuration of a central Cisco router serial interface, first in a frame relay point-to-point connection, then in a multipoint connection, and finally with subinterfaces We also will explain how inverse ARP simplifies configuration and why the Split Horizon algorithm is not enabled on frame relay ports (unless sub-interfaces are used) Basic Configuration The simplest example of frame relay is that shown in Fig 6-2 In that case, the frame relay provider assigns a DLCI address of 1 to the location of router 1, and 2 to the location with router 2 Let's look at how we build the configuration for the serial port of router 1 In interface configuration mode for the Serial 0 port of router 1, type the following: Router1(config-int)#ip address 132387 2552552550 Router1(config-int)#encapsulation frame relay This defines frame relay encapsulation for the Serial 0 port The only optional argument that can be supplied on this command is ietf, which would configure the interface to use the IETF rather than the Cisco encapsulation Your frame relay provider will inform you if this argument is necessary The next configuration entry will be to define the LMI type This command can have one of three values The default is Cisco, while optional arguments can specify ANSI or q933a, the latter being the ITU standard Again, your frame relay provider should let you know which to use Router1(config-int)#frame-relay lmi-type ansi Next we have to tell the router which destination DLCI should be used to reach a given IP address This discussion assumes that manual configuration of frame relay maps is necessary; in a subsequent section we will examine how inverse ARP makes this unnecessary For router 1, the 132380 subnet is reachable through the Serial 0 interface, so all packets for that subnet are sent out Serial 0 The frame relay supplier will have set up the PVC to send anything that originates at one end of the PVC out the other end The potential exists for many PVCs to be associated with one physical interface, so we must tell the serial port which DLCI number to use to get to which protocol address destination Therefore, we have to tell it that to reach IP address 132389, it will use DLCI 1 With this DLCI information, the frame relay network can deliver the packet to its desired destination This configuration is achieved with the following command: Router1(config-int)#frame-relay map ip 132389 1 broadcast
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Router1(config-int)#frame-relay map ip 132389 1 broadcast The argument broadcast enables router 1 to send broadcast routing updates to router 2 through this PVC If the Serial 0 port on router 2 were to be configured in the same way, the two routers could communicate via frame relay With only one PVC, this level of configuration may seem like overkill and it is but the next example will show why it is necessary Later in this chapter, when we use our three lab routers to configure a test frame relay network, we will see that a properly configured network and interface will remove the need to enter multiple frame-relay map commands This is all well and good, but it is not taking advantage of one of the main benefits of frame relay, which is the ability to multiplex many links onto one This feature tends to be useful for a central router that must connect to many remote sites, a situation shown in Fig 6-1 To enable router 1 in Fig 6-1 to reach routers 2 through 6, the configuration we have so far can be extended with additional map statements The first step, however, will be to buy the additional PVCs from the frame relay carrier and obtain the local DLCI numbers that identify PVCs to all the remote locations Assume we are delivered the following DLCI assignments and IP address allocations: Router Serial 0 IP Address 1 132387 2 132389 3 132388 4 1323810 5 1323811 6 1323812 1 4 6 8 10 3 5 7 9 11 DLCI at router 1 Remote DLCI
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To reach all remote routers, router 1 would need the configuration shown in Fig 6-3 This shows that router 1 has 5 DLCIs configured, and tells it which DLCI to use to get the packets delivered to the appropriate IP address At first it may seem that, by addressing packets to a DLCI number that is defined at the router 1 location, the packets are not really being sent anywhere The best way to think of this, though, is to think of each DLCI as a pipe, and as long as router 1 puts the packet in the correct pipe, the frame relay network will deliver the packet to the correct destination Inverse ARP As you can see, configuring all these frame relay map statements can become a bore, especially if you have upwards of 20 locations Fortunately there is a mechanism that will save us from all this manual effort, and that is InverseARP Inverse ARP works in conjunction with the LMI to deliver enough information to routers attached to a frame relay network, so that no frame relay map statements need to be manually configured
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INTERFACE SERIAL 0 IP ADDRESS 132387 2552552550 ENCAPSULATION FRAME RELAY FRAME-RELAY LMI-TYPE ANSI FRAME-RELAY MAP IP 132389 1 BROADCAST FRAME-RELAY MAP IP 132388 4 BROADCAST FRAME-RELAY MAP IP 1323810 6 BROADCAST FRAME-RELAY MAP IP 1323811 8 BROADCAST FRAME-RELAY MAP IP 1323812 10 BROADCAST Figure 6-3: Configuration for router 1 in Figure 6-1
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Upon startup, the LMI will announce to an attached router all the DLCI numbers that are configured on the physical link connecting the router to the network The router will then send Inverse ARP requests out each DLCI to find out the protocol address configured on the other end of each DLCI's PVC In this way, a router will generate its own list of what IP addresses are reachable through which DLCI number Fully Meshed Frame Relay Networks For IP implemented over frame relay networks, the Split Horizon rule is disabled This allows a central router to readvertise routes learned from one remote location on a serial interface to other remote locations connected to the same serial interface In Fig 6-1, this means that all routers will end up with entries in their routing tables for net 1 through net 6 Some other protocols, such as those used in Apple networking, will not allow Split Horizon to be turned off, so routes cannot be readvertised out of the interface from which they were learned To provide full routing capability across a frame relay network with these protocols requires a separate link from each location to every other location This type of connectivity is referred to as a fully meshed network (Fig 6-4)
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