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SMDS: Switched Multimegabit Data Service
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SMDS, or Switched Multimegabit Data Service, has not yet gained significant market penetration, although it has begun to experience some growth SMDS was viewed as a stepping stone to ATM, since some of the communications equipment and media are common to the two technologies As SMDS is not available everywhere, and there is more interest in ATM, SMDS has had a hard time getting into the mainstream SMDS does, however, have some penetration; if your long-distance carrier is MCI, you may have cause to use this technology The attraction of SMDS is that it has the potential to provide highspeed, link-level connections (initially in the 1 to 34 Mbps range) with the economy of a shared public network, and exhibits many of the qualities of a LAN In an SMDS network, each node has a unique 10-digit address Each digit is in binary-coded decimal, with 4 bits used to represent values 0 through 9 Bellcore, the "keeper" of the SMDS standard, assigns a 64-bit address for SMDS, which has the following allocation: The most significant 4 bits are either 1100 to indicate an individual address, or 1110 to indicate a group address The next 4 most significant bits are used for the country code, which is 0001 for the United States The next 40 bits are the binary-coded decimal bits representing the 10-decimal digit station address The final 16 bits are currently padded with ones To address a node on the SMDS network, all you need do is put the node's SMDS address in the destination field of the SMDS frame In this way, SMDS behaves in a fashion similar to Ethernet or Token-Ring, which delivers frames according to MAC addresses A key difference between SMDS and these LAN technologies, however, is the maximum frame size allowed Ethernet allows just over 1500 bytes, and Token-Ring just over 4000 bytes, but SMDS allows up to 9188 bytes These SMDS frames are segmented into ATM-sized 53-byte cells for transfer across the network A large frame size gives SMDS the ability to encapsulate complete LAN frames, such as Ethernet, TokenRing, and FDDI, for transportation over the SMDS network An SMDS network can accept full-bandwidth connections from DS0 (64 kbps) and DS1 (1544 Mbps) circuits, or an access class, which is a bandwidth slice of a higher-speed link such as a DS3 (45 Mbps) These links terminate at what is known as the Subscriber Network Interface (SNI) and connect to the Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) The SNI typically is an SMDS CSU/DSU device and the CPE in this case will be a Cisco router These elements are illustrated in Fig 6-9
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Figure 6-9: SMDS network components
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SMDS is based on the 8026 standard for Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN), which defines a Distributed Queue Dual Bus, and is a connectionless technology The key difference between SMDS and 8026 is that SMDS does not utilize a dual-bus architecture; instead, connections are centered on a hub and deployed in a star configuration
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SMDS Protocols
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SMDS has its own layer 1 and layer 2 protocols that specify the physical connections and voltage levels used, along with the layer 2 addresses These protocols are implemented in the SMDS Interface Protocol (SIP) SIP has three levels, with SIP levels 2 and 3 defining the Data Link layer functions SMDS carries IP information quite effectively Let's say IP as a layer 3 (in OSI terms) protocol hands a frame down to the SIP level 3 protocol SIP 3 will place a header and trailer on this frame to form a level 3 Protocol Data Unit (This is "layer 3" in SMDS parlance, which is a part of the layer 2 protocol in OSI terms) This expanded frame has SMDS source and destination addresses that include the aforementioned country codes and 10-digit decimal addresses The expanded frame is passed down to the SIP level 2 protocol, which cuts this expanded frame into 44-byte chunks, to which get added a header and trailer, enabling reassembly of the frame once the 44-byte chunks have been received by the destination These 44-byte chunks are termed level 2 Protocol Data Units The SIP level 1 protocol provides appropriate framing and timing for the transmission medium in use The relationship between OSI and SIP layers is illustrated in Fig 6-10
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