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Sample Router Configuration for SNMP Management
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The following commands taken from a router configuration file define the basics for enabling a router to be monitored from an SNMP management station access-list 2 permit 193110 000255 snmp-server community hagar RW 2 snmp-server packetsize 4096 snmp-server trap-authentication snmp-server host 193111 public Let's explore these commands one by one, then look at some additional SNMP commands Command snmp-server community hagar RW 2 allows read and write access to hosts presenting the SNMP community string hagar if access list 2 permits it The community string is like a password; a device wanting SNMP read and write access to the router will need to supply the correct community string Access list 2 only permits packets from the 193110 network (It is assumed that your network management station is on this network number) It is a good security measure to restrict SNMP access to hosts on your network management LAN Command snmp-serverpacketsize4096 raises the maximum packet size, which for SNMP communications defaults to 484 bytes very small It is more efficient in terms of network resource utilization to send a smaller number of larger packets than to send many small packets
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Command snmp-server trap-authentication works hand-in-hand with the snmpserverhost command By enabling trap authentication, you are telling the router to send an
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when the router becomes aware of any entity sending SNMP commands with an incorrect community string (ie, one that is failing authentication) Command snmp-serverhost193111 public identifies the host address to send traps back to If you want to send traps to multiple hosts, they must each have their own snmp-server host entries The community string sent along with the trap is public, a default community string name As it stands, this command sends traps of all types; optional keywords can limit the traps sent to specific types, such as tty (for when a TCP connection closes) or snmp (for traps defined in RFC 1157) Some additional snmp commands you may wish to consider to expand the functionality of an SNMP monitoring system are as follows: Command snmp-server queue-length can help handle situations where a router does not have an entry in its routing table to reach the management station, or is in a state where traps are being constantly generated, and a queue of messages to be sent out is building up This command specifies the maximum number of messages that will be outstanding at one time; the default is 10 Command snmp-servertrap-source specifies the interface, and by implication the IP address, to use for the source address when sending traps back to the management station This could be useful if you know that all the serial ports on your internetwork routers belong to one major network number You then can accept only those traps coming from this major network number and add some security to the process of trap collection The use of SNMP generally has been a good thing for people charged with managing internetworks I recommend you use caution, however, when deciding which management station software to use, and be careful about deciding what you monitor via polling devices Ideally, what you should look for in implementing a network management system is a minimum amount of traffic overhead placed on the internetwork, combined with operators being notified of monitored events on the internetwork as they happen A network management station generally utilizes a graphical display of some kind, and uses visual prompts to notify operators of events on the internetwork In most cases these events can trigger such things as e-mail and beeper notification I stated earlier that the optimal way to monitor an internetwork was to poll the most significant devices and set traps for all the ancillary devices and variable thresholds in which you are interested With the management systems available today, achieving this is not always straightforward Some management stations will not allow the status of a monitored device to be set when a trap is received These management stations accept the trap, then poll the device to determine the exact nature of the trap sent In other cases, the SNMP-managed device is a problem because some device agents do not allow traps to be generated for all the MIB variables that you want to monitor In this situation, the only way to determine if a MIB variable that you have interest in has exceeded a given value is to poll the device and retrieve the MIB variable directly All this makes optimal management of an internetwork via SNMP a significant challenge The key points to consider when purchasing a management system are summarized as follows: 1Will the management station respond appropriately to traps sent by monitored devices and not require a separate poll to be sent to the monitored device 2Can you obtain device agents that will send traps for all the variables you wish to monitor
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3Can you set traps and threshold limits for all the variables you want to monitor simply by using a graphical user interface, without having to resort to programming arcane strings 4If the management system suffers a catastrophic failure, can you use a text interface to manage device operation over modem lines
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