barcode addin excel 2013 Figure 2-4 Janelle and Tiffany, hard at work in Software

Generate UPCA in Software Figure 2-4 Janelle and Tiffany, hard at work

Figure 2-4 Janelle and Tiffany, hard at work
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Long before Janelle ever saved the Word document on her system when the systems were first installed someone who knew what they were doing set up and configured all the systems at MHTechEd to be part of a common network All this setup activity resulted in multiple layers of hardware and software that can work together behind the scenes to get that Word document from Janelle s system to Tiffany s Let s examine the different pieces of the network, and then return to the process of Tiffany grabbing that Word document
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Test Specific Let s Get Physical Network Hardware and Layers 1 2
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Clearly the network needs a physical channel through which it can move bits of data between systems Most networks use a cable like the one shown in Figure 2-5 This cable, known in the networking industry as unshielded twisted pair (UTP), usually contains four pairs of wires that transmit data
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Figure 2-5 UTP cabling
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Another key piece of hardware the network uses is a special box-like device called a hub (Figure 2-6), often tucked away in a closet or an equipment room Each system on the network has its own cable that runs to the hub Think of the hub as being like one of those old-time telephone switchboards, where operators created connections between persons who called in wanting to reach other telephone users
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Figure 2-6 Typical hub
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2: Building a Network with the OSI Model
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Layer 1 of the OSI model defines the method of moving data between computers So the cabling and hubs are part of the Physical layer (Layer 1) Anything that moves data from one system to another, such as copper cabling, fiber optics, even radio waves, is part of the Physical layer Layer 1 doesn t care what data goes through; it just moves the data from one system to another system Figure 2-7 shows the MHTechEd network in the OSI seven-layer model thus far Note that each system has the full range of layers, so data from Janelle s computer can flow to Tiffany s computer
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Figure 2-7 The network so far, with the Physical layer hardware installed
The real magic of a network starts with the network interface card, or NIC (pronounced nick ), which serves as the interface between the PC and the network While NICs come in a wide array of shapes and sizes, the ones at MHTechEd look like Figure 2-8
Figure 2-8 Typical NIC
On older systems, a NIC truly was a separate card that snapped into a handy expansion port, which is why they were called network interface cards Even though they re now built into the motherboard, we still call them NICs When installed in a PC, the NIC looks like Figure 2-9 Note the cable running from the back of the NIC into the wall; inside that wall is another cable running all the way back to the hub
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Figure 2-9 NIC with cable connecting the PC to the wall jack
Cabling and hubs define the Physical layer of the network, and NICs provide the interface to the PC Figure 2-10 shows a diagram of the network cabling system I ll build on this diagram as I delve deeper into the network process
Figure 2-10 The MHTechEd network
You might be tempted to categorize the NIC as part of the Physical layer at this point, and you d have a valid argument The NIC clearly is necessary for the physical connection to take place! The CompTIA Network+ exam and most authors put the NIC into Layer 2, the Data Link layer, though, so clearly something else is happening inside the NIC Let s take a closer look
2: Building a Network with the OSI Model
The NIC
To understand networks, you must understand how NICs work The network must provide a mechanism that gives each system a unique identifier like a telephone number so that data is delivered to the right system That s one of the most important jobs of a NIC Inside every NIC, burned onto some type of ROM chip, is special firmware containing a unique identifier with a 48-bit value called the media access control address, or MAC address No two NICs ever share the same MAC address ever Any company that makes NICs must contact the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and request a block of MAC addresses, which the company then burns into the ROMs on its NICs Many NIC makers also print the MAC address on the surface of each NIC, as shown in Figure 2-11 Note that the NIC shown here displays the MAC address in hexadecimal notation Count the number of hex characters because each hex character represents 4 bits, it takes 12 hex characters to represent 48 bits
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