2d barcode excel 2013 Figure 10-12 Any TCP/IP-savvy program accepts either an IP address or an FQDN in Software

Paint UPC-A Supplement 2 in Software Figure 10-12 Any TCP/IP-savvy program accepts either an IP address or an FQDN

Figure 10-12 Any TCP/IP-savvy program accepts either an IP address or an FQDN
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When you type in a Web address, Internet Explorer must resolve that name to the Web server s IP address to make a connection to that Web server It can resolve the name in three ways: by broadcasting, by consulting the locally stored HOSTS text file, or by contacting a DNS server To broadcast for name resolution, the host sends a message to all the machines on the network, saying something like, Hey! If your name is JOESCOMPUTER, please respond with your IP address All the networked hosts receive that packet, but only JOESCOMPUTER responds with an IP address Broadcasting works fine for small networks, but it is limited because it cannot provide name resolution across routers Routers do not forward broadcast messages to other networks, as illustrated in Figure 10-13
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10: Network Naming
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I m the Router The broadcast stops here
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JOESCOMPUTER
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I need JOESCOMPUTER s IP address
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Figure 10-13 Routers don t forward broadcasts!
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As discussed earlier, a HOSTS file functions like a little black book, listing the names and addresses of machines on a network, just like a little black book lists the names and phone numbers of people A typical HOSTS file would look like this:
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1095494197 13812516317 127001 stephentotalsemcom rogertotalsemcom localhost
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NOTE Notice that the name localhost appears in the HOSTS file as an alias for the loopback address, 127001
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The final way to resolve a name to an IP address is to use DNS Let s say you type wwwmicrosoftcom in your Web browser To resolve the name wwwmicrosoftcom, the host contacts its DNS server and requests the IP address, as shown in Figure 10-14 To request the IP address of wwwmicrosoftcom, your PC needs the IP address of its DNS server You must enter DNS information into your system DNS server data is part of the critical basic IP information such as your IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway, so it s usually entered at the same time as the other IP information You configure DNS in Windows Vista using the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties
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Figure 10-14 A host contacts its local DNS server
Client
Client s DNS server
1 The client asks its DNS server for the wwwmicrosoftcom IP address
2 The DNS server doesn t know the IP address, so it asks the root DNS server
dialog box Figure 10-15 shows the DNS settings for my system Note that I have more than one DNS server setting; the second one is a backup in case the first one isn t working Two DNS settings is not a rule, however, so don t worry if your system shows only one DNS server setting, or perhaps more than two
Figure 10-15 DNS information in Windows
Every operating system has a way for you to enter DNS server information In Linux you can directly edit the /etc/resolvconf file using a text editor Just about every version of Linux has some form of graphical editor as well to make this an easy process Figure 10-16 shows Ubuntu s Network Configuration utility Every operating system also comes with a utility you can use to verify the DNS server settings You can see your current DNS server settings in Windows by typing ipconfig /all at the command prompt (Figure 10-17) In UNIX/Linux type cat /etc/resolvconf
10: Network Naming
Figure 10-16 Entering DNS information in Ubuntu
Figure 10-17 IPCONFIG /ALL showing DNS information in Windows
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Now that you know how your system knows the DNS server s IP address, let s return to the DNS process The DNS server receives the request for the IP address of wwwmicrosoftcom from your client computer At this point, your DNS server checks a cache of previously resolved FQDNs to see if wwwmicrosoftcom is there (Figure 10-18) In this case, wwwmicrosoftcom is not in the cache
Cache Type SOA NS A SOA A NS Name mailtotalsemcom ns1fredcom wwwgooglecom enwikipediaorg wwwusagov ns1blahblahcom IP 2012585 523819842 1476215108 85145268 68722149 8510418972
Client s DNS server 1 The client asks its DNS server for the wwwmicrosoftcom IP address
Client
Figure 10-18
Checking the DNS cache
It s now time for your DNS server to get to work The local DNS server may not know the address for wwwmicrosoftcom, but it does know the addresses of the DNS root servers The root servers, maintained by InterNIC, know all the addresses of the top-level domain DNS servers The root servers don t know the address of wwwmicrosoftcom, but they do know the address of the DNS servers in charge of all com addresses The root servers send your DNS server an IP address for a com server (Figure 10-19)
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