barcode excel 2003 free Figure 11-32 Users on an SSH server in Software

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Figure 11-32 Users on an SSH server
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In addition to using a password for authentication, SSH also can use public keys to identify clients This opens up some interesting possibilities such as no-interaction logins You can also turn off password login altogether, hardening your server even further To use public/private keys for authentication, you must first generate a pair of RSA or Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) keys with a tool such as PuTTYgen (Figure 11-33) The public key is then copied to the server and the private key is kept safe on the client When you connect to the server, your client generates a signature using its private key and sends it to the server The server then checks the signature with its copy of the public key, and if everything checks out, you will be authenticated with the server If SSH stopped here as a secure replacement for Telnet, that would be fantastic, but SSH has another trick up its sleeve: the capability to act as a tunnel for any TCP/IP application Let s see what tunnels are and how they work for us
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Tunneling
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Simply, a tunnel is an encrypted link between two programs on two separate computers Let s take a look at an SSH link between a server and a client Once established, anything you enter into the client application is encrypted, sent to the server, decrypted, and then acted upon (Figure 11-34) The nature of SSH is such that it took very little to extend the idea of SSH to accept input from any source, even another program (Figure 11-35) As long as the program could redirect to the SSH client and then the SSH server redirect to the server application, anything can go through an SSH connection encrypted This is an SSH tunnel
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11: Securing TCP/IP
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Figure 11-33 Generated keys in PuTTYgen
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Figure 11-34 SSH in action
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Command encrypted
Command decrypted LS-r Tunnel
Figure 11-35 Encrypting a Web client
Encryption
Decryption
Tunnel
CompTIA Network+ All-in-One Exam Guide
SSH tunnels are wildly popular and fairly easy to set up Equally, all of the popular SSH clients and servers are designed to go into tunnel mode, usually with no more than the simple click of a check box (Figure 11-36)
Figure 11-36 Turning on tunneling in freeSSHd server
There are many tunneling protocols and standards used in TCP/IP SSH is one of the simplest types of tunnels so it s a great first exposure to tunneling As the book progresses, you ll see more tunneling protocols, but you have the basics of tunneling For now, make sure you understand that a tunnel is an encrypted connection between two endpoints Any packet that enters the encrypted tunnel, including a packet with unencrypted data, is automatically encrypted, goes through the tunnel, and is decrypted on the other endpoint SSH may be popular, but it s not the only option for encryption All of the other encryption standards are built into combined authentication/encryption standards, as covered in the next section
Combining Authentication and Encryption
The rest of the popular authentication and encryption standards are combined to include both authentication and encryption in a single standard Lumping together
11: Securing TCP/IP
authentication and encryption into the same standard does not make it weaker than the standards already discussed These are some of the most popular standards used on the Internet today because they offer excellent security
SSL/TLS
The introduction and rapid growth of e-commerce on the World Wide Web in the mid 1990s made it painfully obvious that some form of authentication and encryption was needed Netscape Corporation took the first shot at a new standard At the time, the dominant Web browser was Netscape Navigator Netscape created a standard called Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) SSL requires a server with a certificate When a client requests access to an SSL-secured server, the server sends to the client a copy of the certificate The SSL client checks this certificate (all Web browsers come with an exhaustive list of CA root certificates preloaded), and if the certificate checks out, the server is authenticated and the client negotiates a symmetric-key cipher for use in the session (Figure 11-37) The session is now in a very secure encrypted tunnel between the SSL server and the SSL client
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