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NICs solely in the Data Link layer is the obvious other duty of the NIC putting the ones and zeroes on the network cable How much more physical can you get Many teachers will finesse this issue by defining the Physical layer in its logical sense that it defines the rules for the ones and zeroes and then ignore the fact that the data sent on the cable has to come from something The first question when you hear a statement like that at least to me is, What component does the sending It s the NIC of course, the only device capable of sending and receiving the physical signal Network cards, therefore, operate at both Layer 2 and Layer 1 of the OSI seven-layer model If cornered to answer one or the other, however, go with the more common answer, Layer 2
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Beyond the Single Wire Network Software and Layers 3 7
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Getting data from one system to another in a simple network (defined as one in which all the computers connect to one hub) takes relatively little effort on the part of the NICs But one problem with simple networks is that computers need to broadcast to get MAC addresses It works for small networks, but what happens when the network gets big, like the size of the entire Internet Can you imagine millions of computers all broadcasting No data could get through When networks get large, you can t use the MAC addresses anymore Large networks need a logical addressing method that no longer cares about the hardware and enables us to break up the entire large network into smaller networks called subnets Figure 2-26 shows two ways to set up a network On the left, all the computers connect to a single hub On the right, however, the LAN is separated into two five-computer subnets
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Figure 2-26
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Large LAN complete (left) and broken up into two subnets (right)
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2: Building a Network with the OSI Model
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MAC addresses are also known as physical addresses
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To move past the physical MAC addresses and start using logical addressing requires some special software, usually called a network protocol Network protocols exist in every operating system A network protocol not only has to create unique identifiers for each system, but must also create a set of communication rules for issues like how to handle data chopped up into multiple packets, and how to make sure that those packets get from one subnet to another Let s take a moment to learn a bit about the most famous network protocol TCP/IP and its unique universal addressing system To be accurate, TCP/IP is really several network protocols designed to work together but two protocols, TCP and IP, do so much work the folks who invented all these protocols named the whole thing TCP/IP TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, and IP stands for Internet Protocol IP is the network protocol I need to discuss first; rest assured, however, I ll cover TCP in plenty of detail later NOTE TCP/IP is the most famous network protocol, but there are others
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IP Playing on Layer 3, the Network Layer
The IP protocol is the primary protocol that TCP/IP uses at Layer 3 (Network) of the OSI model The IP protocol makes sure that a piece of data gets to where it needs to go on the network It does this by giving each device on the network a unique numeric identifier called an IP address An IP address is known as a logical address to distinguish it from the physical address, the MAC address of the NIC Every network protocol uses some type of naming convention, but no two protocols use the same convention IP uses a rather unique dotted decimal notation (sometimes referred to as a dotted-octet numbering system) based on four 8-bit numbers Each 8-bit number ranges from 0 to 255, and the four numbers are separated by periods (If you don t see how 8-bit numbers can range from 0 to 255, don t worry By the end of this book, you ll understand these naming conventions in more detail than you ever believed possible!) A typical IP address might look like this: 1921684232 No two systems on the same network share the same IP address; if two machines accidentally receive the same address, they won t be able to send or receive data These IP addresses don t just magically appear they must be configured by the end user (or the network administrator) Take a look at Figure 2-26 What makes logical addressing powerful are the magic boxes called routers that separate each of the subnets Routers work like a hub, but
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