14: Remote Connection Basics in Software

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Similar to the North American T1 line, E1 is the European format for digital transmission An E1 line carries signals at 2048 Mbps (32 channels at 64 Kbps), compared to the T1 s 1544 Mbps (24 channels at 64 Kbps) Both E1 and T1 lines may be interconnected for international use There are also E3 lines, which carry 16 E1 lines, with a bandwidth of 34368 Mbps A CSU/DSU, as mentioned earlier, connects a leased T1 or T3 line from the telephone company to a customer s equipment A CSU/DSU has (at least) two connectors, one that goes to the T1/T3 line running out of your demarc and another connection that goes to your router It performs line encoding and conditioning functions, and often has a loopback function for testing Many newer routers have CSU/DSUs built into them Figure 14-14 shows the front of a Juniper Networks router with two T1 interfaces Two interfaces on one router is quite common, with the dual links providing redundancy if one link goes down
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Figure 14-14 CSU/DSU on a Juniper router (photo courtesy of Juniper Networks, Inc)
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The CSU part of a CSU/DSU is designed to protect the T1 or T3 line and the user equipment from lightning strikes and other types of electrical interference It also stores statistics and has capabilities for loopback testing The DSU part supplies timing to each user port, taking the incoming user data signals and converting the input signal into the specified line code, and then framing the format for transmission over the provided line Make sure you know the four T-carriers shown in Table 14-1!
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Table 14-1 T-carriers
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Carrier Channels Speed
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T1 T3 E1 E3
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24 672 32 512
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1544 Mbps 44736 Mbps 2048 Mbps 34368 Mbps
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Fiber Carriers: SONET/SDH and OC
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T-carriers were a great start into the digital world, but in the early 1980s fiber-optic cabling became the primary tool for long-distance communication all over the world By now AT&T was gone, replaced by a number of competing carriers Competition was strong and everyone was making their own fiber transmission standards In an incredible moment of corporate cooperation, in 1987, all of the primary fiber-optic carriers decided to drop their own standards and move to a new international standard called Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) in the United States and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) in Europe
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NOTE Students often wonder why two separate names exist for the same technology In reality, SONET and SDH vary a little in their signaling and frame type, but routers and other magic boxes on the Internet handle the interoperability between the standards The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) publishes the standard as SONET; the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) publishes the standard as SDH, but includes SONET signaling For simplicity s sake and because SONET is the more common term in the United States, this book uses SONET as the generic term for this technology All of these carriers, all adopting the same standard, created a world of simple interconnections between competing voice and data carriers This adoption defined the moment that truly made the Internet a universal network Before SONET, interconnections happened but they were outlandishly expensive, preventing the Internet from reaching many areas of the world SONET is the primary standard for long-distance, high-speed, fiber-optic transmission systems There is a high level of comparison of SONET to network standards like Ethernet because SONET defines interface standards at the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI seven-layer model The physical aspect of SONET is partially covered by the Optical Carrier standards, but it also defines a ring-based topology that most SONET adopters now use SONET does not require a ring, but a SONET ring has extra survivability in case of line loss As a result, most of the big, long-distance optical pipes for the world s telecommunications networks are SONET rings EXAM TIP SONET is one of the most important standards for making all of our WAN interconnections and it s also the least likely standard you ll ever see because it s hidden away from all but the biggest networks The real beauty of SONET lies in its multiplexing capabilities A single SONET ring can combine multiple DS1, DS3, even European E1 signals and package them into single, huge SONET frames for transmission Clearly, for SONET to handle such large data rates it needs high-capacity fiber optics and that s where the Optical Carrier standards come into play! The Optical Carrier (OC) specification is used to denote the optical data carrying capacity (in Mbps) of fiber-optic cables in networks conforming to the SONET standard The OC standard is an escalating series of speeds, designed to meet the needs of medium-to-large corporations SONET establishes OCs from 518 Mbps (OC-1) to 398 Gbps (OC-768) SONET uses the Synchronous Transport Signal (STS) method The STS consists of two parts: the STS payload (which carries data), and the STS overhead (which carries the signaling and protocol information) When we talk about STS, we add a number to the end of STS to designate the speed of the signal For example, STS-1 is the 5185-Mbps signal that runs on an OC-1 line STS-3 runs at 15552 Mbps on OC-3 lines, and so on Table 14-2 describes the most common optical carriers
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