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The original IEEE 80211 wireless Ethernet standard defined methods by which devices may communicate using spread-spectrum radio waves Spread-spectrum broadcasts data in small, discrete chunks over the different frequencies available within a certain frequency range 80211 defines three different spread-spectrum broadcasting methods: direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) DSSS sends data out on different frequencies at the same time, while FHSS sends data on one frequency at a time, constantly shifting
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(or hopping) frequencies DSSS uses considerably more bandwidth than FHSS around 22 MHz as opposed to 1 MHz DSSS is capable of greater data throughput, but it s also more prone to interference than FHSS OFDM is the latest method and combines the multiple frequencies of DSSS with FHSS s hopping capability The 80211 wireless networking implementation used DSSS and later OFDM
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Every Wi-Fi network communicates on a channel, a portion of the spectrum available The 80211 standard defined 14 channels, but different countries may limit exactly which channels may be used In the United States, for example, a WAP may only use channels 1 through 11 These channels have some overlap, so it s not a good idea to have two nearby WAPs to use close channels like 6 and 7 Most WAPs use channel 1, 6, or 11 by default to keep the channels as far apart as possible You can fine-tune a network by moving WAPs to other channels to avoid overlap with other, nearby WAPs This is especially important in environments with many wireless networks sharing the same physical space
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Because only a single device can use any network at a time, network nodes must have a way to access the network media without stepping on each other s data packets Wired Ethernet networks use carrier sense multiple access/collision detection (CSMA/CD), as you ll recall from previous chapters, but Wi-Fi networks use carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) Let s compare both methods EXAM TIP Wired Ethernet networks use carrier sense multiple access/ collision detection (CSMA/CD) Wi-Fi networks use carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) How do multiple devices share the network media, such as a cable This is fairly simple: each device listens in on the network media by measuring the level of voltage currently on the wire If the level is below the threshold, the device knows that it s clear to send data If the voltage level rises above a preset threshold, the device knows that the line is busy and it must wait before sending data Typically, the waiting period is the length of the current frame plus a short, predefined silence period called an interframe space (IFS) So far, so good but what happens when two devices both detect that the wire is free and try to send data simultaneously As you probably guessed, packets transmitted on the network from two different devices at the same time will corrupt each other, thereby canceling each other out This is called a collision Collisions are a fact of networking life So, how do network nodes deal with collisions They either react to collisions after they happen, or they take steps to avoid collisions in the first place CSMA/CD is the reactive method With CSMA/CD, each sending node detects the collision and responds by generating a random timeout period for itself, during which it doesn t try to send any more data on the network this is called a backoff Once the
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16: Wireless Networking
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backoff period expires (remember that we re only talking about milliseconds here), the node goes through the whole process again This approach may not be very elegant, but it gets the job done CSMA/CD won t work for wireless networking as, wireless devices simply can t detect collisions; therefore, wireless networks need another way of dealing with them The CSMA/CA access method, as the name implies, proactively takes steps to avoid collisions The 80211 standard defines two methods of collision avoidance: Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) and Point Coordination Function (PCF) Currently, only DCF is implemented EXAM TIP Current CSMA/CA devices use the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) method for collision avoidance DCF specifies much stricter rules for sending data onto the network media For instance, if a wireless network node detects that the network is busy, DCF defines a backoff period on top of the normal IFS wait period before a node can try to access the network again DCF also requires that receiving nodes send an acknowledgement (ACK) for every packet that they process The ACK also includes a value that tells other wireless nodes to wait a certain duration before trying to access the network media This period is calculated to be the time that the data packet takes to reach its destination based on the packet s length and data rate If the sending node doesn t receive an ACK, it retransmits the same data packet until it gets a confirmation that the packet reached its destination 80211 was the very oldest wireless standard (see Table 16-1) Over time, more detailed additions to 80211 came along that improved speed and took advantage of other frequency bands
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