Network Destination 1012140 Netmask 2552552550 Gateway 101214201 Interface 101214201 Metric 1 in Software

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So, if a gateway of 101214201 here means don t use a gateway, why put a number in here at all Local connections don t use a default gateway, though every routing table has a gateway column The Microsoft folks had to put something there, thus they put the IP address of the NIC That s why the gateway address is the same as the interface address Personally, I ve always found this confusing Wouldn t calling the gateway 0000, as you saw in the previous routing table, make more sense Better yet, wouldn t it be even better if we just said, This is a local call so no gateway is needed Well, this is Windows XP In Windows Vista the gateway value for local connections just says onlink a much more accurate description! Part of the joy of learning routing tables is getting used to how different operating systems deal with issues like these Okay, on to the third line This one s easy Anything addressed to this machine should go right back to it through the loopback (127001)
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Network Destination 101214201 Netmask 255255255255 Gateway 127001 Interface 127001 Metric 1
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This next line is another loopback, but look carefully Earlier you learned that only 127001 is the loopback, but according to this route, any 127/8 address is the loopback
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Network Destination 127000 Netmask 255000 Gateway 127001 Interface 127001 Metric 1
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The next route says that any addresses in the 169254/16 network ID are part of the LAN (remember, whenever the gateway and interface are the same it s a local connection) If your computer uses Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and can t get an IP address, this route would enable you to communicate with other computers on the network who hopefully are also having the same DHCP problem Note the high metric
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Network Destination 16925400 Netmask 25525500 Gateway 101214201 Interface 101214201 Metric 20
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This is the multicast address range Odds are good you ll never need it, but most operating systems put it in automatically
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Network Destination 224000 Netmask 240000 Gateway 101214201 Interface 101214201 Metric 1
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This line defines the default IP broadcast If you send out an IP broadcast (255255255255), your NIC knows to send it out to the local network
Network Destination 255255255255 Netmask 255255255255 Gateway Interface Metric 101214201 101214201 1
Freedom from Layer 2
Routers enable you to connect different types of network technologies You now know that routers strip off all of the Layer 2 data from the incoming packets, but thus far you ve only seen routers that connect to different Ethernet networks and that s just fine with routers But routers can connect almost anything that stores IP packets
8: The Wonderful World of Routing
Not to take away from some very exciting upcoming chapters, but Ethernet is not the only networking technology out there Once you want to start making long-distance connections, Ethernet disappears and technologies with names like Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) (cable modems), Frame Relay, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) take over These technologies are not Ethernet Their frames don t use MAC addresses, although just like Ethernet frames they do store IP packets Most serious (that is, not home) routers enable you to add ports You buy the router and then you snap in different types of ports depending on your needs Note the Cisco router in Figure 8-12 Like most Cisco routers, it comes with removable modules If you re connecting Ethernet to ATM, you buy an Ethernet module and an ATM module If you re connecting Ethernet to a DOCSIS (cable) network, you buy an Ethernet module and a DOCSIS module
Figure 8-12 Modular Cisco router
Network Address Translation
The ease of connecting computers together using TCP/IP and routers creates a rather glaring security risk If every computer on a network must have an unique IP address and TCP/IP applications enable you to do something on a remote computer, what s to stop a malicious programmer from writing a program that does things on your computer that you don t want done All he d need is the IP address for your computer and he could target you from anywhere on the network Now expand this concept to the Internet A computer sitting in Peoria can be attacked by a program run from Bangkok as long as both computers connect directly to the Internet And this happens all the time Security is one problem; two other problems are the finite number of IP addresses available and their cost IP addresses, once thought limitless, are quickly running out Most of the available IP numbers have already been allocated, making public IP addresses more and more rare Anything that s rare costs more money Legitimate, public IP addresses are, therefore, more expensive to come by Wouldn t it be great to lease only one public IP address instead of tens or even hundreds for every computer on your network Routers running some form of Network Address Translation (NAT) hide the IP addresses of computers on the LAN, but still enable those computers to communicate with the broader Internet NAT addresses the problems of IP addressing on the Internet NAT has
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