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Bandwidth Utilization: Multiplexing and Spreading Transmission Media Switching 213 191
Using Telephone and Cable Networksfor Data Transmission
Data Link Layer
Data Link Control Multiple Access
267 307 363 395
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Error Detection and Correction
Wired LANs: Ethernet Wireless LANs 421
Connecting LANs, Backbone Networks, and Virtual LANs Wireless WANs: Cellular Telephone and Satellite Networks SONETISDH 491 517
445 467
Virtual-Circuit Nenvorks: Frame Relay andATM
viii
BRIEF CONTENTS
PART 4
Network Layer
549 579
19 20 21 22
Netvvork Layer: Logical Addressing Netvvork Layer: Internet Protocol
Netl,vork Laver: Address Mapping, Error Reporting, and Multicasting 611 Network Layer: Delivery, Fonvarding, and Routing 647
PARTS
23 24
PART 6
Transport Layer
703 761
Process-to-Process Delivery: UDp, TCP, and SCTP Congestion Control and Quality ql'Sen'ice
Application Layer
797 817
25 26 27 28 29
Domain Name System
Remote Logging, Electronic Mail, and File Transfer WWW and HTTP 851 873
Network Management: SNMP Multimedia 901
PART 7
30 31 32 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H
AcronVl11s ClOSSOlY References Index IIII
Security
931 961
Cf}1J tography
Network Security
Securit}' in the Internet: IPSec, SSLlTLS, PCp, VPN, and Firewalls 995 Unicode 1029 1037 1043
Numbering Systems Mathematical Review 8B/6T Code 1055
Telephone History Co!1tact Addresses RFCs 1063 UDP and TCP Ports
1059 1061 1065
1067 1071 1107
Preface
xxix Overview 1
PART 1
1
Introduction
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Components 4 Data Representation DataFlow 6
NETWORKS
Distributed Processing 7 Network Criteria 7 Physical Structures 8 Network Models 13 Categories of Networks 13 Interconnection of Networks: Internetwork
13 14
THE INTERNET
16 19
A Brief History 17 The Internet Today 17
PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS
Protocols 19 Standards 19 Standards Organizations Internet Standards 21 20
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 21 Sites 22 RFCs 22
16 17 18
KEY TERMS 22 SUMMARY 23 PRACTICE SET 24
Review Questions 24 Exercises 24 Research Activities 25
2
Network Models
LAYERED TASKS
Sender, Receiver, and Carrier Hierarchy 29
CONTENTS
THE OSI MODEL
Layered Architecture 30 Peer-to-Peer Processes 30 Encapsulation 33
LAYERS IN THE OSI MODEL
Physical Layer 33 Data Link Layer 34 Network Layer 36 Transport Layer 37 Session Layer 39 Presentation Layer 39 Application Layer 41 Summary of Layers 42 TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE 42 Physical and Data Link Layers 43 43 Network Layer Transport Layer 44 Application Layer 45
ADDRESSING
Physical Addresses 46 Logical Addresses 47 Port Addresses 49 Specific Addresses 50
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 51 Sites 51 RFCs 51
27 28 29
KEY lERMS 51 SUMMARY 52 PRACTICE SET 52
Review Questions 52 Exercises 53 Research Activities 54
PART 2
Physical Layer and Media
Data and Signals
3
ANALOG AND DIGITAL
Analog and Digital Data 57 Analog and Digital Signals 58 Periodic and Nonperiodic Signals
PERIODIC ANALOG SIGNALS
Sine Wave 59 Phase 63 Wavelength 64 Time and Frequency Domains Composite Signals 66 Bandwidth 69
DIGITAL SIGNALS 71
Bit Rate 73 Bit Length 73 Digital Signal as a Composite Analog Signal Transmission of Digital Signals 74 74
CONTENTS
TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENT
Attenuation 81 Distortion 83 Noise 84
DATA RATE LIMITS
Noiseless Channel: Nyquist Bit Rate 86 Noisy Channel: Shannon Capacity 87 Using Both Limits 88
PERFORMANCE
Bandwidth 89 Throughput 90 Latency (Delay) 90 Bandwidth-Delay Product Jitter 94
37 38 39 310
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 94
KEYTERMS 94 SUMMARY 95 PRACTICE SET 96
Review Questions Exercises 96 96
4
Digital Transmission
DIGITAL-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Line Coding 101 Line Coding Schemes Block Coding 115 Scrambling 118 106
42 43 44 45 46 47
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Delta Modulation (DM) 129 121
TRANSMISSION MODES
Parallel Transmission 131 Serial Transmission 132
131 135
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 135
KEYTERMS 135 SUMMARY 136 PRACTICE SET 137
Review Questions Exercises 137 137
5 Analog TranSl1'lission
Aspects of Digital-to-Analog Conversion Amplitude Shift Keying 143 Frequency Shift Keying 146 Phase Shift Keying 148 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 152
DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERSION
ANALOG-TO-ANALOG CONVERSION
Amplitude Modulation 153 Frequency Modulation 154 Phase Modulation 155
CONTENTS
53 54 55 56
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 156
KEY lERMS 157 SUMMARY 157 PRACTICE SET 158
Review Questions Exercises 158 158
6
Ba17chridth Utili::ation: Multiplexing and Spreading 161 161
MULTIPLEXING
Frequency-Division Multiplexing 162 Wavelength-Division Multiplexing 167 Synchronous Time-Division Multiplexing 169 Statistical Time-Division Multiplexing 179
62 63 64 65 66
SPREAD SPECTRUM
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 184
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 185
KEY lERMS 185 SUMMARY 186 PRACTICE SET 187
Review Questions Exercises 187 187
7
Transmission Media 192
GUIDED MEDIA
Twisted-Pair Cable 193 Coaxial Cable 195 Fiber-Optic Cable 198
UNGUIDED MEDIA: WIRELESS
Radio Waves 205 Microwaves 206 Infrared 207
73 74 75 76
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 208
KEY lERMS 208 SUMMARY 209 PRACTICE SET 209
Review Questions Exercises 210 209
8
Svvitching
213 214
CIRCUIT-SWITCHED NETWORKS
Three Phases 217 Efficiency 217 Delay 217 Circuit-Switched Technology in Telephone Networks
DATAGRAM NETWORKS
Routing Table 220
CONTENTS
xiii
Efficiency 220 Delay 221 Datagram Networks in the Internet
VIRTUAL-CIRCUIT NETWORKS
Addressing 222 Three Phases 223 Efficiency 226 Delay in Virtual-Circuit Networks 226 Circuit-Switched Technology in WANs 227
84 85 86 87 88
STRUCTURE OF A SWITCH
Structure of Circuit Switches 227 Structure of Packet Switches 232
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 235
KEY TERMS 235 SUMMARY 236 PRACTICE SET 236
Review Questions Exercises 237 236
9
Using Telephone and Cable Networks for Data Transm,ission 241
1ELEPHONE NETWORK
Major Components 241 LATAs 242 Signaling 244 Services Provided by Telephone Networks
92 93
DIAL-UP MODEMS
Modem Standards ADSL 252 ADSL Lite 254 HDSL 255 SDSL 255 VDSL 255 Summary 255 249
DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE 251
94 95
CABLE TV NETWORKS
Traditional Cable Networks 256 Hybrid Fiber-Coaxial (HFC) Network Bandwidth 257 Sharing 259 CM and CMTS 259 Data Transmission Schemes: DOCSIS
CABLE TV FOR DATA TRANSFER
96 97 98 99
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 261
KEY TERMS 261 SUMMARY 262 PRACTICE SET 263
Review Questions Exercises 264 263
CONTENTS
PART 3
Data Link Layer
10
Error Detection and Correction
INTRODUCTION
Types of Errors 267 Redundancy 269 Detection Versus Correction 269 Forward Error Correction Versus Retransmission Coding 269 Modular Arithmetic 270
BLOCK CODING
Error Detection 272 Error Correction 273 Hamming Distance 274 Minimum Hamming Distance
103 104
LINEAR BLOCK CODES CYCLIC CODES 284
Minimum Distance for Linear Block Codes Some Linear Block Codes 278 Cyclic Redundancy Check 284 Hardware Implementation 287 Polynomials 291 Cyclic Code Analysis 293 Advantages of Cyclic Codes 297 Other Cyclic Codes 297
CHECKSUM
Idea 298 One's Complement 298 Internet Checksum 299
106 107 108 109
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 301 RFCs 301
30 I
KEY lERMS 301 SUMMARY 302 PRACTICE SET 303
Review Questions Exercises 303 303
11
111 112 113 114 115 FRAMING
Data Link Control
Fixed-Size Framing 308 Variable-Size Framing 308
FLOW AND ERROR CONTROL
Flow Control 311 Error Control 311 PROTOCOLS 311
NOISELESS CHANNELS
Simplest Protocol 312 Stop-and-Wait Protocol 315
NOISY CHANNELS
Stop-and-Wait Automatic Repeat Request 318 Go-Back-N Automatic Repeat Request 324
CONTENTS
Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request Piggybacking 339
HDLC
Configurations and Transfer Modes Frames 341 Control Field 343
POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL
Framing 348 Transition Phases 349 Multiplexing 350 Multilink PPP 355
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 357
119 KEY TERMS 357 1110 SUMMARY 358 1111 PRACTICE SET 359
Review Questions Exercises 359 359
12
Multiple Access
RANDOMACCESS
ALOHA 365 Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) 370 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMAlCD) 373 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMAlCA) 377
CONTROLLED ACCESS
Reservation 379 Polling 380 Token Passing 381
CHANNELIZATION
Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 383 Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 384 Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 385
124 125 126 127
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 391
KEY TERMS 391 SUMMARY 391 PRACTICE SET 392
Review Questions 392 Exercises 393 Research Activities 394
13
131 132 133
Wired LANs: Ethernet
395 397 406
IEEE STANDARDS
Data Link Layer 396 Physical Layer 397
STANDARD ETHERNET
MAC Sublayer 398 Physical Layer 402
CHANGES IN THE STANDARD
Bridged Ethernet 406 Switched Ethernet 407 Full-Duplex Ethernet 408
CONTENTS
134 135
FAST ETHERNET
MAC Sublayer 409 Physical Layer 410
409 412
GIGABIT ETHERNET
MAC Sublayer 412 Physical Layer 414 Ten-Gigabit Ethernet 416
136 137 138 139
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 417
KEY TERMS 417 SUMMARY 417 PRACTICE SET 418
Review Questions Exercises 419 418
14
141 IEEE 80211
Wireless LANs
Architecture 421 MAC Sublayer 423 Addressing Mechanism Physical Layer 432
BLUETOOTH
Architecture 435 Bluetooth Layers 436 Radio Layer 436 Baseband Layer 437 L2CAP 440 Other Upper Layers 441
143 144 145 146
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 442
44 I
KEYTERMS 442 SUMMARY 442 PRACTICE SET 443
Review Questions Exercises 443 443
15
Connecting LANs, Backbone Networks, and VirtuaL LANs 445
CONNECTING DEVICES
Passive Hubs 446 Repeaters 446 Active Hubs 447 Bridges 447 Two-Layer Switches 454 Routers 455 Three-Layer Switches 455 Gateway 455
BACKBONE NETWORKS
Bus Backbone 456 Star Backbone 457 Connecting Remote LANs 457
CONTENTS
xvii
VIRTUAL LANs 458 Membership 461 Configuration 461 Communication Between Switches IEEE Standard 462 Advantages 463 RECOMMENDED READING
Books 463 Site 463
154 155 156 157
KEY TERMS 463 SUMMARY 464 PRACTICE SET 464
Review Questions Exercises 465 464
16
Wireless WANs: Cellular Telephone and Satellite Networks 467
CELLULAR TELEPHONY
Frequency-Reuse Principle Transmitting 468 Receiving 469 Roaming 469 First Generation 469 Second Generation 470 Third Generation 477
SATELLITE NETWORKS
Orbits 479 Footprint 480 Three Categories of Satellites GEO Satellites 481 MEO Satellites 481 LEO Satellites 484
163 164 165 166
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 487
KEY TERMS 487 SUMMARY 487 PRACTICE SET 488
Review Questions Exercises 488 488
17
SONETISDH
ARCHITECTURE 491
Signals 491 SONET Devices 492 Connections 493
SONET LAYERS
Path Layer 494 Line Layer 495 Section Layer 495 Photonic Layer 495 Device-Layer Relationships
xviii
CONTENTS
SONET FRAMES
Frame, Byte, and Bit Transmission STS-l Frame Format 497 Overhead Summary 501 Encapsulation 501
STS MULTIPLEXING 503
Byte Interleaving 504 Concatenated Signal 505 AddlDrop Multiplexer 506
SONET NETWORKS
Linear Networks 507 Ring Networks 509 Mesh Networks 510
176 177
VIRTUAL TRIBUTARIES
Types ofVTs Books 513 512
512 513
RECOMMENDED READING
178 KEY lERMS 513 179 SUMMARY 514 171 0 PRACTICE SET 514
Review Questions Exercises 515 514
18
Virtual-Circuit Networks: Frame Relm' and ATM
FRAME RELAY
Architecture 518 Frame Relay Layers 519 Extended Address 521 FRADs 522 VOFR 522 LMI 522 Congestion Control and Quality of Service
Design Goals 523 Problems 523 Architecture 526 Switching 529 ATM Layers 529 Congestion Control and Quality of Service
ATM LANs
ATM LAN Architecture 536 LAN Emulation (LANE) 538 Client/Server Model 539 Mixed Architecture with Client/Server
184 185 186 187
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 541
KEY lERMS 541 SUMMARY 541 PRACTICE SET 543
Review Questions Exercises 543 543
CONTENTS
PART 4
Network Layer
19
Netvl/ark Layer: Logical Addressing
IPv4ADDRESSES
Address Space 550 Notations 550 Classful Addressing 552 Classless Addressing 555 Network Address Translation (NAT)
192 193
IPv6 ADDRESSES
Structure 567 Address Space 568
566 572
RECOMMENDED READING
Books 572 Sites 572 RFCs 572
194 195 196
KEY TERMS 572 SUMMARY 573 PRACTICE SET 574
Review Questions 574 Exercises 574 Research Activities 577
20
Network Layer: Internet Protocol
INTERNETWORKING
Need for Network Layer 579 Internet as a Datagram Network 581 Internet as a Connectionless Network 582
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