Examples of routing in a banyan switch
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a Input 1 sending a cell to output 6 (110)
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b Input 5 sending a cell to output 2 (010)
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Batcher-Banyan Switch The problem with the banyan switch is the possibility of internal collision even when two packets are not heading for the same output port We can solve this problem by sorting the arriving packets based on their destination port K E Batcher designed a switch that comes before the banyan switch and sorts the incoming packets according to their final destinations The combination is called the Batcher-banyan switch The sorting switch uses hardware merging techniques, but we do not discuss the details here Normally, another hardware module called a trap is added between the Batcher switch and the banyan switch (see Figure 826) The trap module prevents duplicate packets (packets with the same output destination) from passing to the banyan switch simultaneously Only one packet for each destination is allowed at each tick; if there is more than one, they wait for the next tick
For more details about subjects discussed in this chapter, we recommend the following books The items in brackets  refer to the reference list at the end of the text
Switching is discussed in 10 of [Sta04] and s 4 and 7 of [GW04] Circuitswitching is fully discussed in [BELOO]
crosspoint data transfer phase datagram datagram network end system input port
banyan switch Batcher-banyan switch blocking circuit switching circuit-switched network crossbar switch
multistage switch output port packet-switched network routing processor setup phase space-division switching switch switching switching fabric
table lookup teardown phase time-division switching time-slot interchange (TSI) time-space-time (TST) switch trap virtual-circuit identifier (VCI) virtual-circuit network
A switched network consists of a series of interlinked nodes, called switches Traditionally' three methods of switching have been important: circuit switching, packet switching, and message switching We can divide today's networks into three broad categories: circuit-switched networks, packet-switched networks, and message-switched Packet-switched networks can also be divided into two subcategories: virtual-circuit networks and datagram networks A circuit-switched network is made of a set of switches connected by physical links, in which each link is divided into n channels Circuit switching takes place at the physical layer In circuit switching, the resources need to be reserved during the setup phase; the resources remain dedicated for the entire duration of data transfer phase until the teardown phase In packet switching, there is no resource allocation for a packet This means that there is no reserved bandwidth on the links, and there is no scheduled processing time for each packet Resources are allocated on demand In a datagram network, each packet is treated independently of all others Packets in this approach are referred to as datagrams There are no setup or teardown phases A virtual-circuit network is a cross between a circuit-switched network and a datagram network It has some characteristics of both Circuit switching uses either of two technologies: the space-division switch or the time-division switch A switch in a packet-switched network has a different structure from a switch used in a circuit-switched networkWe can say that a packet switch has four types of components: input ports, output ports, a routing processor, and switching fabric
I Describe the need for switching and define a switch
2 List the three traditional switching methods What are the most common today
3 What are the two approaches to packet-switching 4 Compare and contrast a circuit-switched network and a packet-switched network 5 What is the role of the address field in a packet traveling through a datagram network 6 What is the role of the address field in a packet traveling through a virtual-circuit network 7 Compare space-division and time-division switches 8 What is TSI and its role in a time-division switching 9 Define blocking in a switched network 10 List four major components of a packet switch and their functions