how to print barcode in excel 2007 The existing local loops can handle bandwidths up to 11 MHz in Software

Generator Code 39 in Software The existing local loops can handle bandwidths up to 11 MHz

The existing local loops can handle bandwidths up to 11 MHz
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Unfortunately, 11 MHz is just the theoretical bandwidth of the local loop Factors such as the distance between the residence and the switching office, the size of the cable, the signaling used, and so on affect the bandwidth The designers of ADSL technology were aware of this problem and used an adaptive technology that tests the condition and bandwidth availability of the line before settling on a data rate The data rate of ADSL is not fixed; it changes based on the condition and type of the local loop cable
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ADSL is an adaptive technology The system uses a data rate based on the condition of the local loop line
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The modulation technique that has become standard for ADSL is called the discrete multitone technique (DMT) which combines QAM and FDM There is no set way that the bandwidth of a system is divided Each system can decide on its bandwidth division Typically, an available bandwidth of 1104 MHz is divided into 256 channels Each channel uses a bandwidth of 4312 kHz, as shown in Figure 910 Figure 911 shows how the bandwidth can be divided into the following:
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Voice Channel 0 is reserved for voice communication Idle Channels 1 to 5 are not used and provide a gap between voice and data
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Discrete multitone technique
Upstream bits
Downstream bits
Bandwidth division in ADSL
Voice
Upstream
Downstream
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Not used
108 138
Upstream data and control Channels 6 to 30 (25 channels) are used for upstream data transfer and control One channel is for control, and 24 channels are for data transfer If there are 24 channels, each using 4 kHz (out of 4312 kHz available) with QAM modulation, we have 24 x 4000 x 15, or a 144-Mbps bandwidth, in the upstream direction However, the data rate is normally below 500 kbps because some of the carriers are deleted at frequencies where the noise level is large In other words, some of channels may be unused Downstream data and control Channels 31 to 255 (225 channels) are used for downstream data transfer and control One channel is for control, and 224 channels are for data If there are 224 channels, we can achieve up to 224 x 4000 x 15, or 134 Mbps However, the data rate is normally below 8 Mbps because some of the carriers are deleted at frequencies where the noise level is large In other words, some of channels may be unused
Customer Site: ADSL Modem
Figure 912 shows an ADSL modem installed at a customer's site The local loop connects to a splitter which separates voice and data communications The ADSL
USING TELEPHONE AND CABLE NETWORKS FOR DATA TRANSMISSION
modem modulates and demodulates the data, using DMT, and creates downstream and upstream channels
ADSL modem
Splitter Voice
Local loop Data ADSLmodem
Note that the splitter needs to be installed at the customer's premises, normally by a technician from the telephone company The voice line can use the existing telephone wiring in the house, but the data line needs to be installed by a professional All this makes the ADSL line expensive We will see that there is an alternative technology, Universal ADSL (or ADSL Lite)
Telephone Company Site: DSLAM
At the telephone company site, the situation is different Instead of an ADSL modem, a device called a digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM) is installed that functions similarly In addition, it packetizes the data to be sent to the Internet (ISP server) Figure 913 shows the configuration
DSLAM
Splitter
To telephone ~ network Packetized
V_o_ic_e_ _-+--i
Low-pass filter
Local loop
High-pass To the ~_ _~d~at~a_---i~d~ Internet UIIM---I--"" filter ",_,",!"",,_u
ADSL Lite
The installation of splitters at the border of the premises and the new wiring for the data line can be expensive and impractical enough to dissuade most subscribers A new version of ADSL technology called ADSL Lite (or Universal ADSL or splitterless ADSL) is available for these subscribers This technology allows an ASDL Lite modem to be plugged directly into a telephone jack and connected to the computer The splitting is done at the telephone company ADSL Lite uses 256 DMT carriers with 8-bit modulation
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