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The Internet has come a long way since the 1960s The Internet today is not a simple hierarchical structure It is made up of many wide- and local-area networks joined by connecting devices and switching stations It is difficult to give an accurate representation of the Internet because it is continually changing-new networks are being added, existing networks are adding addresses, and networks of defunct companies are being removed Today most end users who want Internet connection use the services of Internet service providers (lSPs) There are international service providers, national
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INTRODUCTION
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service providers, regional service providers, and local service providers The Internet today is run by private companies, not the government Figure 113 shows a conceptual (not geographic) view of the Internet
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Figure 113 Hierarchical organization of the Internet
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a Structure of a national ISP
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ISP b Interconnection of national ISPs
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International Internet Service Providers
At the top of the hierarchy are the international service providers that connect nations together
National Internet Service Providers
The national Internet service providers are backbone networks created and maintained by specialized companies There are many national ISPs operating in North America; some of the most well known are SprintLink, PSINet, UUNet Technology, AGIS, and internet Mel To provide connectivity between the end users, these backbone networks are connected by complex switching stations (normally run by a third party) called network access points (NAPs) Some national ISP networks are also connected to one another by private switching stations called peering points These normally operate at a high data rate (up to 600 Mbps)
SECTION 14
PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS
Regional Internet Service Providers
Regional internet service providers or regional ISPs are smaller ISPs that are connected to one or more national ISPs They are at the third level of the hierarchy with a smaller data rate
Local Internet Service Providers
Local Internet service providers provide direct service to the end users The local
ISPs can be connected to regional ISPs or directly to national ISPs Most end users are connected to the local ISPs Note that in this sense, a local ISP can be a company that just provides Internet services, a corporation with a network that supplies services to its own employees, or a nonprofit organization, such as a college or a university, that runs its own network Each of these local ISPs can be connected to a regional or national service provider
PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS
In this section, we define two widely used terms: protocols and standards First, we define protocol, which is synonymous with rule Then we discuss standards, which are agreed-upon rules
Protocols
In computer networks, communication occurs between entities in different systems An entity is anything capable of sending or receiving information However, two entities cannot simply send bit streams to each other and expect to be understood For communication to occur, the entities must agree on a protocol A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communications A protocol defines what is communicated, how it is communicated, and when it is communicated The key elements of a protocol are syntax, semantics, and timing o Syntax The term syntax refers to the structure or format of the data, meaning the order in which they are presented For example, a simple protocol might expect the first 8 bits of data to be the address of the sender, the second 8 bits to be the address of the receiver, and the rest of the stream to be the message itself o Semantics The word semantics refers to the meaning of each section of bits How is a particular pattern to be interpreted, and what action is to be taken based on that interpretation For example, does an address identify the route to be taken or the final destination of the message o Timing The term timing refers to two characteristics: when data should be sent and how fast they can be sent For example, if a sender produces data at 100 Mbps but the receiver can process data at only 1 Mbps, the transmission will overload the receiver and some data will be lost
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