In other words, the sequence numbers are modulo-2 m in Software

Generation Code39 in Software In other words, the sequence numbers are modulo-2 m

In other words, the sequence numbers are modulo-2 m
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In the Go-Back-N Protocol, the sequence numbers are modulo 1!", where m is the size of the sequence number field in bits
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In this protocol (and the next), the sliding window is an abstract concept that defines the range of sequence numbers that is the concern of the sender and receiver In other words, the sender and receiver need to deal with only part of the possible sequence numbers The range which is the concern of the sender is called the send sliding window; the range that is the concern of the receiver is called the receive sliding window We discuss both here The send window is an imaginary box covering the sequence numbers of the data frames which can be in transit In each window position, some of these sequence numbers define the frames that have been sent; others define those that can be sent The maximum size of the window is 2m - 1 for reasons that we discuss later In this chapter, we let the size be fixed and set to the maximum value, but we will see in future chapters that some protocols may have a variable window size Figure 1112 shows a sliding window of size 15 (m = 4) The window at any time divides the possible sequence numbers into four regions The first region, from the far left to the left wall of the window, defines the sequence
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Send window for Go-Back-N ARQ
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Frames already acknowledged
Frames that can be sent, but not received from upper layer Frames that cannot be sent
Frames sent, but not acknowledged (outstanding)
Send window, size SSilC '" 2m - 1
a Send window before sliding
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b Send window after sliding
numbers belonging to frames that are already acknowledged The sender does not worry about these frames and keeps no copies of them The second region, colored in Figure 1112a, defines the range of sequence numbers belonging to the frames that are sent and have an unknown status The sender needs to wait to find out if these frames have been received or were lost We call these outstanding frames The third range, white in the figure, defines the range of sequence numbers for frames that can be sent; however, the corresponding data packets have not yet been received from the network layer Finally, the fourth region defines sequence numbers that cannot be used until the window slides, as we see next The window itself is an abstraction; three variables define its size and location at any time We call these variables Sf(send window, the first outstanding frame), Sn (send window, the next frame to be sent), and Ssize (send window, size) The variable Sf defines the sequence number of the first (oldest) outstanding frame The variable Sn holds the sequence number that will be assigned to the next frame to be sent Finally, the variable Ssize defines the size of the window, which is fixed in our protocol
The send window is an abstract concept defining an imaginary box of size 2m ~ 1 with three variables: Sp Sm and Ssize'
Figure 1112b shows how a send window can slide one or more slots to the right when an acknowledgment arrives from the other end As we will see shortly, the acknowledgments in this protocol are cumulative, meaning that more than one frame can be acknowledged by an ACK frame In Figure 1112b, frames 0, I, and 2 are acknowledged, so the window has slid to the right three slots Note that the value of Sf is 3 because frame 3 is now the first outstanding frame
The send window can slide one or more slots when a valid acknowledgment arrives
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The receive window makes sure that the correct data frames are received and that the correct acknowledgments are sent The size of the receive window is always I The receiver is always looking for the arrival of a specific frame Any frame arriving out of order is discarded and needs to be resent Figure 1113 shows the receive window
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