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On the other hand, to keep PPP simple, several services are missing:
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I PPP does not provide flow control A sender can send several frames one after
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another with no concern about overwhelming the receiver 2 PPP has a very simple mechanism for error control A CRC field is used to detect errors If the frame is corrupted, it is silently discarded; the upper-layer protocol needs to take care of the problem Lack of error control and sequence numbering may cause a packet to be received out of order 3 PPP does not provide a sophisticated addressing mechanism to handle frames in a multipoint configuration
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PPP is a byte-oriented protocol Framing is done according to the discussion of byteoriented protocols at the beginning of this chapter
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Figure 1132 shows the format of a PPP frame The description of each field follows: Figure 1132
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1 byte 1 byte 1 byte 1 or 2 bytes Variable 2 or 4 bytes 1 byte
Flag A PPP frame starts and ends with a I-byte flag with the bit pattern 01111110 Although this pattern is the same as that used in HDLC, there is a big difference PPP is a byte-oriented protocol; HDLC is a bit-oriented protocol The flag is treated as a byte, as we will explain later Address The address field in this protocol is a constant value and set to 11111111 (broadcast address) During negotiation (discussed later), the two parties may agree to omit this byte Control This field is set to the constant value 11000000 (imitating unnumbered frames in HDLC) As we will discuss later, PPP does not provide any flow control Error control is also limited to error detection This means that this field is not needed at all, and again, the two parties can agree, during negotiation, to omit this byte Protocol The protocol field defines what is being carried in the data field: either user data or other information We discuss this field in detail shortly This field is by default 2 bytes long, but the two parties can agree to use only I byte Payload field This field carries either the user data or other information that we will discuss shortly The data field is a sequence of bytes with the default of a maximum of 1500 bytes; but this can be changed during negotiation The data field is bytestuffed if the flag byte pattern appears in this field Because there is no field defining the size of the data field, padding is needed if the size is less than the maximum default value or the maximum negotiated value FCS The frame check sequence (FCS) is simply a 2-byte or 4-byte standard CRe
SECTION 117 POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL
Byte Stuffing
The similarity between PPP and HDLe ends at the frame format PPP, as we discussed before, is a byte-oriented protocol totally different from HDLC As a byte-oriented protocol, the flag in PPP is a byte and needs to be escaped whenever it appears in the data section of the frame The escape byte is 01111101, which means that every time the flaglike pattern appears in the data, this extra byte is stuffed to tell the receiver that the next byte is not a flag
PPP is a byte-oriented protocol using byte stuffing with the escape byte 01111101
Transition Phases
A PPP connection goes through phases which can be shown in a transition phase diagram (see Figure 1133)
Transition phases
Failed Carrier detected
Carrier dropped Tenmnate Failed
Options agreed by both sides Authenticate Authentication successful Network If authentication not needed
Done
Network layer configuration
D Dead In the dead phase the link is not being used There is no active carrier (at
the physical layer) and the line is quiet D Establish When one of the nodes starts the communication, the connection goes into this phase In this phase, options are negotiated between the two parties If the negotiation is successful, the system goes to the authentication phase (if authentication is required) or directly to the networking phase The link control protocol packets, discussed shortly, are used for this purpose Several packets may be exchanged here D Authenticate The authentication phase is optional; the two nodes may decide, during the establishment phase, not to skip this phase However, if they decide to proceed with authentication, they send several authentication packets, discussed later If the result is successful, the connection goes to the networking phase; otherwise, it goes to the termination phase D Network In the network phase, negotiation for the network layer protocols takes place PPP specifies that two nodes establish a network layer agreement before data at
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