how to print 2d barcode in excel Figure 1136 PAP packets encapsulated in a PPP frame in Software

Printer Code 3 of 9 in Software Figure 1136 PAP packets encapsulated in a PPP frame

Figure 1136 PAP packets encapsulated in a PPP frame
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Authenticate-request Authenticate-ack or authenticate-nak
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CHAP The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is a three-way hand-shaking authentication protocol that provides greater security than PAP In this method, the password is kept secret; it is never sent online
SECTION 117 POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL
1 The system sends the user a challenge packet containing a challenge value, usually a few bytes 2 The user applies a predefined function that takes the challenge value and the user's own password and creates a result The user sends the result in the response packet to the system 3 The system does the same It applies the same function to the password of the user (known to the system) and the challenge value to create a result If the result created is the same as the result sent in the response packet, access is granted; otherwise, it is denied CHAP is more secure than PAP, especially if the system continuously changes the challenge value Even if the intruder learns the challenge value and the result, the password is still secret Figure 1137 shows the packets and how they are used
Figure 1137 CHAP packets encapsulated in a PPP frame
System User
Challenge Response Success or failure
Variable
Variable
CHAP packets
Address
-~J)l{623 s_, -,: -:< -
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,--
Payload (and padding)
Flag
CHAP packets are encapsulated in the PPP frame with the protocol value C223 in hexadecimal There are four CHAP packets: challenge, response, success, and failure The first packet is used by the system to send the challenge value The second is used by the user to return the result of the calculation The third is used by the system to allow access to the system The fourth is used by the system to deny access to the system
Network Control Protocols
PPP is a multiple-network layer protocol It can carry a network layer data packet from protocols defined by the Internet, OSI, Xerox, DECnet, AppleTalk, Novel, and so on
DATA LINK CONTROL
To do this, PPP has defined a specific Network Control Protocol for each network protocol For example, IPCP (Internet Protocol Control Protocol) configures the link for carrying IP data packets Xerox CP does the same for the Xerox protocol data packets, and so on Note that none of the NCP packets carry network layer data; they just configure the link at the network layer for the incoming data IPCP One NCP protocol is the Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP) This protocol configures the link used to carry IP packets in the Internet IPCP is especially of interest to us The format of an IPCP packet is shown in Figure 1138 Note that the value of the protocol field in hexadecimal is 8021 Figure 1138
fPCP packet encapsulated in PPP frame
Variable
Payload (and padding)
Flag
IPCP defines seven packets, distinguished by their code values, as shown in Table 114 Table 114 Code value for IPCP packets
Code IPCP Packet Configure-request Configure-ack Configure-nak Configure-reject Terminate-request Terminate-ack Code-reject
OxO! Ox02 Ox03 Ox04 Ox05 Ox06 Ox07
Other Protocols There are other NCP protocols for other network layer protocols The OSI Network Layer Control Protocol has a protocol field value of 8023; the Xerox NS IDP Control Protocol has a protocol field value of 8025; and so on The value of the code and the format of the packets for these other protocols are the same as shown in Table 114
Data/rom the Network Layer
After the network layer configuration is completed by one of the NCP protocols, the users can exchange data packets from the network layer Here again, there are different
SECTION 117
POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL
protocol fields for different network layers For example, if PPP is carrying data from the IP network layer, the field value is 0021 (note that the three rightmost digits are the same as for IPCP) If PPP is carrying data from the OSI network layer, the value of the protocol field is 0023, and so on Figure 1139 shows the frame for IP
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