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Frame Relay provides permanent virtual circuits and switched virtual circuits Figure 181 shows an example of a Frame Relay network connected to the Internet The routers are used, as we will see in 22, to connect LANs and WANs in the Internet In the figure, the Frame Relay WAN is used as one link in the global Internet
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SECTION 181
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Virtual Circuits Frame Relay is a virtual circuit network A virtual circuit in Frame Relay is identified by a number called a data link connection identifier (DLCI)
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VCIs in Frame Relay are called DLCIs
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Permanent Versus Switched Virtual Circuits A source and a destination may choose to have a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) In this case, the connection setup is simple The corresponding table entry is recorded for all switches by the administrator (remotely and electronically, of course) An outgoing DLCI is given to the source, and an incoming DLCI is given to the destination PVC connections have two drawbacks First, they are costly because two parties pay for the connection all the time even when it is not in use Second, a connection is created from one source to one single destination If a source needs connections with several destinations, it needs a PVC for each connection An alternate approach is the switched virtual circuit (SVC) The SVC creates a temporary, short connection that exists only when data are being transferred between source and destination An SVC requires establishing and terminating phases as discussed in 8 Switches Each switch in a Frame Relay network has a table to route frames The table matches an incoming port-DLCI combination with an outgoing port-DLCI combination as we described for general virtual-circuit networks in 8 The only difference is that VCIs are replaced by DLCIs
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Figure 182 shows the Frame Relay layers Frame Relay has only physical and data link layers
VIRTUAL-CIRCUIT NETWORKS: FRAME RELAY AND ATM
Figure 182 Frame Relay layers
Data link
Simplified core functions of data link layer
ANSI standards Ph sical
Frame Relay operates only at the physical and data link layers
Physical Layer No specific protocol is defined for the physical layer in Frame Relay Instead, it is left to the implementer to use whatever is available Frame Relay supports any of the protocols recognized by ANSI Data Link Layer At the data link layer, Frame Relay uses a simple protocol that does not support flow or error control It only has an error detection mechanism Figure 183 shows the format of a Frame Relay frameThe address field defines the DLCI as well as some bits used to control congestion
Frame Relay frame
BECN: Backward explicit congestion notification DE: Discard eligibility DLCI: Data link connection identifier
C/R: Command/response
EA: Extended address FECN: Forward explicit congestion notification
Information
DLCI 6 bits 1 bit 1 bit
DLCI 4 bits
The descriptions of the fields are as follows:
Address (DLCI) field The first 6 bits of the first byte makes up the first part of the DLCI The second part of the DLCI uses the first 4 bits of the second byte These bits are part of the lO-bit data link connection identifier defined by the standard We will discuss extended addressing at the end of this section
SECTION 181
FRAME RELAY
Command/response (CIR) The command/response (C/R) bit is provided to allow upper layers to identify a frame as either a command or a response It is not used by the Frame Relay protocol Extended address (EA) The extended address (EA) bit indicates whether the current byte is the final byte of the address An EA of 0 means that another address byte is to follow (extended addressing is discussed later) An EA of 1 means that the current byte is the final one Forward explicit congestion notification (FECN) The forward explicit congestion notification (FECN) bit can be set by any switch to indicate that traffic is congested This bit informs the destination that congestion has occurred In this way, the destination knows that it should expect delay or a loss of packets We will discuss the use of this bit when we discuss congestion control in 24 Backward explicit congestion notification (BECN) The backward explicit congestion notification (BECN) bit is set (in frames that travel in the other direction) to indicate a congestion problem in the network This bit informs the sender that congestion has occurred In this way, the source knows it needs to slow down to prevent the loss of packets We will discuss the use of this bit when we discuss congestion control in 24 Discard eligibility (DE) The discard eligibility (DE) bit indicates the priority level of the frame In emergency situations, switches may have to discard frames to relieve bottlenecks and keep the network from collapsing due to overload When set (DE 1), this bit tells the network to discard this frame if there is congestion This bit can be set either by the sender of the frames (user) or by any switch in the network
Frame Relay does not provide flow or error control; they must be provided by the upper-layer protocols
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