Network Layer: Logical Addressing in Software

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20 is devoted to the main protocol at the network layer that supervises and controls the delivery of packets from the source to destination This protocol is called the Internet Protocol or IP
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21 is devoted to some auxiliary protocols defined at the network layer, that help the IP protocol do its job These protocols perform address mapping (logical to physical or vice versa), error reporting, and facilitate multicast delivery
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Delivery and routing of packets in the Internet is a very delicat~ and important issue We devote 22 to this matter We first discuss the mechanism of delivery and routing We then briefly discuss some unicast and multicast routing protocols used in the Internet today
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Network Layer: Logical Addressing
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As we discussed in 2, communication at the network layer is host-to-host (computer-to-computer); a computer somewhere in the world needs to communicate with another computer somewhere else in the world Usually, computers communicate through the Internet The packet transmitted by the sending computer may pass through several LANs or WANs before reaching the destination computer For this level of communication, we need a global addressing scheme; we called this logical addressing in 2 Today, we use the term IP address to mean a logical address in the network layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite The Internet addresses are 32 bits in length; this gives us a maximum of 232 addresses These addresses are referred to as IPv4 (IP version 4) addresses or simply IP addresses if there is no confusion The need for more addresses, in addition to other concerns about the IP layer, motivated a new design of the IP layer called the new generation of IP or IPv6 (lP version 6) In this version, the Internet uses 128-bit addresses that give much greater flexibility in address allocation These addresses are referred to as IPv6 (IP version 6) addresses In this chapter, we first discuss IPv4 addresses, which are currently being used in the Internet We then discuss the IPv6 addresses, which may become dominant in the future
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IPv4 ADDRESSES
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An IPv4 address is a 32-bit address that uniquely and universally defines the connection of a device (for example, a computer or a router) to the Internet
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An IPv4 address is 32 bits long
IPv4 addresses are unique They are unique in the sense that each address defines one, and only one, connection to the Internet Two devices on the Internet can never have the same address at the same time We will see later that, by using some strategies, an address may be assigned to a device for a time period and then taken away and assigned to another device
NETWORK IAYER: LOGICAL ADDRESSING
On the other hand, if a device operating at the network layer has m connections to the Internet, it needs to have m addresses We will see later that a router is such a device The IPv4 addresses are universal in the sense that the addressing system must be accepted by any host that wants to be connected to the Internet
The IPv4 addresses are unique and universal
Address Space
A protocol such as IPv4 that defines addresses has an address space An address space is the total number of addresses used by the protocol If a protocol uses N bits to define an address, the address space is 2N because each bit can have two different values (0 or 1) and N bits can have 2N values IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses, which means that the address space is 2 32 or 4,294,967,296 (more than 4 billion) This means that, theoretically, if there were no restrictions, more than 4 billion devices could be connected to the Internet We will see shortly that the actual number is much less because of the restrictions imposed on the addresses
The address space of IPv4 is 232 or 4,294,967,296
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