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The next issue in classless addressing is address allocation How are the blocks allocated The ultimate responsibility of address allocation is given to a global authority called the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Addresses (ICANN) However, ICANN does not normally allocate addresses to individual organizations It assigns a large block of addresses to an ISP Each ISP, in turn, divides its assigned block into smaller subblocks and grants the subblocks to its customers In other words, an ISP receives one large block to be distributed to its Internet users This is called address aggregation: many blocks of addresses are aggregated in one block and granted to one ISP
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An ISP is granted a block of addresses starting with 19010000/16 (65,536 addresses) The ISP needs to distribute these addresses to three groups of customers as follows: a The first group has 64 customers; each needs 256 addresses b The second group has 128 customers; each needs 128 addresses c The third group has 128 customers; each needs 64 addresses Design the subblocks and find out how many addresses are still available after these allocations
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CHAPTER 19 NETWORK LAYER: LOGICALADDRESS1NG
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Figure 199 shows the situation
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Figure 199 An example of address allocation and distribution by an IS
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Group 1: Customer 00 1; 1901 0000/24 r-19_0_1_00_0_0_t_o_19_0_l_0_0_63_2_5_5--r_ Customer 064: 190100630/24
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Group 2: 190100640 to 190100127255 To and from the Internet Group 3: 1901001280 to 190100159255
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Customer 00 1: 190100640/25 Customer 128: 190100127128/25
Customer 001: 1901001280/26 Customer 128: 190100159192/26
Available 1901001600 to 190100255255
1 Group 1
For this group, each customer needs 256 addresses This means that 8 (log2256) bits are needed to define each host The prefix length is then 32 - 8 = 24 The addresses are 1st Customer: 2nd Customer: 19010000/24 19010010/24 1901000255/24 1901001255/24 19010063255/24
64th Customer: 190100630/24 Total = 64 X 256 = 16,384
2 Group2 For this group, each customer needs 128 addresses This means that 7 (10g2 128) bits are needed to define each host The prefix length is then 32 - 7 = 25 The addresses are
1st Customer: 2nd Customer: 190100640/25 19010064128/25 19010064127/25 19010064255/25 190100127255/25
128th Customer: 190100127128/25 Total
=128 X 128 = 16,384
3 Group3 For this group, each customer needs 64 addresses This means that 6 (logz 64) bits are needed to each host The prefix length is then 32 - 6 = 26 The addresses are
SECTION 191
IPv4ADDRESSES
1st Customer: 2nd Customer:
1901001280/26 19010012864/26
19010012863/26 190100128127/26 190100159255/26
128th Customer: 190100159192/26 Total
= 128 X
= 8192
Number of granted addresses to the ISP: 65,536 Number of allocated addresses by the ISP: 40,960 Number of available addresses: 24,576
Network Address Translation (NAT)
The number of home users and small businesses that want to use the Internet is ever increasing In the beginning, a user was connected to the Internet with a dial-up line, which means that she was connected for a specific period of time An ISP with a block of addresses could dynamically assign an address to this user An address was given to a user when it was needed But the situation is different today Home users and small businesses can be connected by an ADSL line or cable modem In addition, many are not happy with one address; many have created small networks with several hosts and need an IP address for each host With the shortage of addresses, this is a serious problem A quick solution to this problem is called network address translation (NAT) NAT enables a user to have a large set of addresses internally and one address, or a small set of addresses, externally The traffic inside can use the large set; the traffic outside, the small set To separate the addresses used inside the home or business and the ones used for the Internet, the Internet authorities have reserved three sets of addresses as private addresses, shown in Table 193
Table 193 Addresses for private networks
Range Total
10000 1721600 19216800
to to to
10255255255 17231255255 192168255255
Any organization can use an address out of this set without permission from the Internet authorities Everyone knows that these reserved addresses are for private networks They are unique inside the organization, but they are not unique globally No router will forward a packet that has one of these addresses as the destination address The site must have only one single connection to the global Internet through a router that runs the NAT software Figure 1910 shows a simple implementation of NAT As Figure 1910 shows, the private network uses private addresses The router that connects the network to the global address uses one private address and one global address The private network is transparent to the rest of the Internet; the rest of the Internet sees only the NAT router with the address 2002458
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