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IPv4
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flags, fragmentation offset, and total length The rest of the fields must be copied Of course, the value of the checksum must be recalculated regardless of fragmentation
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Fields Related to Fragmentation
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The fields that are related to fragmentation and reassembly of an IPv4 datagram are the identification, flags, and fragmentation offset fields
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Identification This 16-bit field identifies a datagram originating from the source host The combination of the identification and source IPv4 address must uniquely define a datagram as it leaves the source host To guarantee uniqueness, the IPv4 protocol uses a counter to label the datagrams The counter is initialized to a positive number When the IPv4 protocol sends a datagram, it copies the current value of the counter to the identification field and increments the counter by'~ 1 As long as the counter is kept in the main memory, uniqueness is guaranteed When a datagram is fragmented, the value in the identification field is copied to all fragments In other words, all fragments have the same identification number, the same as the original datagram The identification number helps the destination in reassembling the datagram It knows that all fragments having the same identification value must be assembled into one datagram Flags This is a 3-bit field The first bit is reserved The second bit is called the do notfragment bit If its value is 1, the machine must not fragment the datagram If it cannot pass the datagram through any available physical network, it discards the datagram and sends an ICMP error message to the source host (see 21) If its value is 0, the datagram can be fragmented if necessary The third bit is called the more fragment bit If its value is 1, it means the datagram is not the last fragment; there are more fragments after this one If its value is 0, it means this is the last or only fragment (see Figure 2010)
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Figure 2010 Flags used in fragmentation
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D: Donat fragment
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~ M: More fragments
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Fragmentation offset This 13-bit field shows the relative position of this fragment with respect to the whole datagram It is the offset of the data in the original datagram measured in units of 8 bytes Figure 2011 shows a datagram with a data size of 4000 bytes fragmented into three fragments The bytes in the original datagram are numbered 0 to 3999 The first fragment carries bytes 0 to 1399 The offset for this datagram is 0/8 = O The second fragment carries bytes 1400 to 2799; the offset value for this fragment is 1400/8 = 175 Finally, the third fragment carries bytes 2800 to 3999 The offset value for this fragment is 2800/8 = 350 Remember that the value of the offset is measured in units of 8 bytes This is done because the length of the offset field is only 13 bits and cannot represent a
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CHAPTER 20 NETWORK LAYER: INTERNET PROTOCOL
Fragmentation example
Offset = 0000/8 = 0
Offset = 0000/8 = 0
Offset = 1400/8
= 175
Byte 0000
Offset = 2800/8 = 350 2800 3999
sequence of bytes greater than 8191 This forces hosts or routers that fragment datagrams to choose a fragment size so that the first byte number is divisible by 8 Figure 2012 shows an expanded view of the fragments in Figure 2011 Notice the value of the identification field is the same in all fragments Notice the value of the flags field with the more bit set for all fragments except the last Also, the value of the offset field for each fragment is shown
Figure 2012 Detailedfragmentation example
14,567 1420
I 111 000
Bytes 0000-1399 Fragment 1
14,567
I 111
820 175
14,567
I 101 000
14,567
I III
1420 175
Bytes 1400-2199 Fragment 21
14,567
Bytes 0000-3999
Bytes 1400-2799 Fragment 2
I III 275
Bytes 2200-2799 Fragment 22
Original datagram
14,567
1220 I 101' 350
Bytes 2800-3999 Fragment 3
SECTION 202
IPv4
The figure also shows what happens if a fragment itself is fragmented In this case the value of the offset field is always relative to the original datagram For example, in the figure, the second fragment is itself fragmented later to two fragments of 800 bytes and 600 bytes, but the offset shows the relative position of the fragments to the original data It is obvious that even if each fragment follows a different path and arrives out of order, the final destination host can reassemble the original datagram from the fragments received (if none of them is lost) by using the following strategy: 1 The first fragment has an offset field value of zero 2 Divide the length of the first fragment by 8 The second fragment has an offset value equal to that result 3 Divide the total length of the first and second fragments by 8 The third fragment has an offset value equal to that result 4 Continue the process The last fragment has a more bit value of O
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