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Anytime a host or a router has an IP datagram to send to another host or router, it has the logical (IP) address of the receiver The logical (IP) address is obtained from the DNS (see 25) if the sender is the host or it is found in a routing table (see 22) if the sender is a router But the IP datagram must be encapsulated in a frame to be able to pass through the physical network This means that the sender needs the physical address of the receiver The host or the router sends an ARP query packet The packet includes the physical and IP addresses of the sender and the IP address of the receiver Because the sender does not know the physical address of the receiver, the query is broadcast over the network (see Figure 211) Every host or router on the network receives and processes the ARP query packet, but only the intended recipient recognizes its IP address and sends back an ARP response packet The response packet contains the recipient's IP and physical addresses The packet is unicast directly to the inquirer by using the physical address received in the query packet
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The node physical address is A4:6E:F4:59:83:AB Reply
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System A
System B
b ARP reply is unicast
In Figure 211a, the system on the left (A) has a packet that needs to be delivered to another system (B) with IP address 141235623 System A needs to pass the packet to its data link layer for the actual delivery, but it does not know the physical address of the recipient It uses the services of ARP by asking the ARP protocol to send a broadcast ARP request packet to ask for the physical address of a system with an IF address of 141235623 This packet is received by every system on the physical network, but only system B will answer it, as shown in Figure 211 b System B sends an ARP reply packet that includes its physical address Now system A can send all the packets it has for this destination by using the physical address it received
Cache Memory
Using ARP is inefficient if system A needs to broadcast an ARP request for each IP packet it needs to send to system B It could have broadcast the IP packet itself ARP can be useful if the ARP reply is cached (kept in cache memory for a while) because a system normally sends several packets to the same destination A system that receives an ARP reply stores the mapping in the cache memory and keeps it for 20 to 30 minutes unless the space in the cache is exhausted Before sending an ARP request, the system first checks its cache to see if it can find the mapping
Packet Format
Figure 212 shows the format of an ARP packet
NETWORK LAYER: ADDRESS MAPPING, ERROR REPORTING, AND MULTICASTING
Figure 212 ARP packet
32 bits 8 bits 8 bits 16 bits
I I I I
l I ~
Hardware Type Protocol length
Protocol Type Operation Request I, Reply 2
Hardware length
Sender hardware address (For example, 6 bytes for Ethernet) Sender protocol address (For example, 4 bytes for IP) Target hardware address (For example, 6 bytes for Ethernet) (It is not filled in a request) Target protocol address (For example, 4 bytes for IP)
Thc fields arc as follows:
o o o o o
Hardware type This is a 16-bit field defining the type of the network on which ARP is running Each LAN has been assigned an integer based on its type For example, Ethernet is given type 1 ARP can be used on any physical network Protocol type This is a 16-bit field defining the protocol For example, the value of this field for the IPv4 protocol is 0800 16 , ARP can be used with any higher-level protocol Hardware length This is an 8-bit field defining the length of the physical address in bytes For example, for Ethernet the value is 6 Protocol length This is an 8-bit field defining the length of the logical address in bytes For example, for the IPv4 protocol the value is 4 Operation This is a 16-bit field defining the type of packet Two packet types are defined: ARP request (1) andARP reply (2) Sender hardware address This is a variable-length field defining the physical address of the sender For example, for Ethernet this field is 6 bytes long Sender protocol address This is a variable-length field defining the logical (for example, IP) address of the sender For the IP protocol, this field is 4 bytes long Target hardware address This is a variable-length field defining the physical address of the target For example, for Ethernet this field is 6 bytes long For an ARP request message, this field is alIOs because the sender does not know the physical address of the target Target protocol address This is a variable-length field defining the logical (for example, IP) address of the target For the IPv4 protocol, this field is 4 bytes long
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