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SECTION 211
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ADDRESS MAPPING
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Encapsulation
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An ARP packet is encapsulated directly into a data link frame For example, in Figure 213
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an ARP packet is encapsulated in an Ethernet frame Note that the type field indicates that the data carried by the frame are an ARP packet
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Figure 213 Encapsulation ofARP packet
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ARP request or reply packet Preamble
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Operation Let us see how ARP functions on a typical internet First we describe the steps involved Then we discuss the four cases in which a host or router needs to use ARP These are the steps involved in an ARP process: 1 The sender knows the IP address of the target We will see how the sender obtains this shortly 2 IP asks ARP to create an ARP request message, filling in the sender physical address, the sender IP address, and the target IP address The target physical address field is filled with Os 3 The message is passed to the data link layer where it is encapsulated in a frame by using the physical address of the sender as the source address and the physical broadcast address as the destination address 4 Every host or router receives the frame Because the frame contains a broadcast destination address, all stations remove the message and pass it to ARP All machines except the one targeted drop the packet The target machine recognizes its IP address 5 The target machine replies with an ARP reply message that contains its physical address The message is unicast 6 The sender receives the reply message It now knows the physical address of the target machine 7 The IP datagram, which carries data for the target machine, is now encapsulated in a frame and is unicast to the destination Four Different Cases The following are four different cases in which the services of ARP can be used (see Figure 214) 1 The sender is a host and wants to send a packet to another host on the same network In this case, the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address is the destination IP address in the datagram header
NETWORK LAYER: ADDRESS MAPPING, ERROR REPORTING, AND MULTICASTING
Figure 214 Four cases using ARP
Target IP address: Destination address in the IP datagram Sender Sender
Target IP address: IP address of a router
Receiver Case 1 A host has a packet to send to another host on the same network
Case 2 A host wants to send a packet to another host on another network It must first be delivered to a router
Target IF address: IF address of the appropriate router found in the routing table Sender
Target IP address: Destination address in the IP datagram Sender
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Case 3 A router receives a packet to be sent to a host on another network It must first be delivered to the appropriate router
Case 4 A router receives a packet to be sent to a host on the same network
2 The sender is a host and wants to send a packet to another host on another network In this case, the host looks at its routing table and finds the IP address of the next hop (router) for this destination If it does not have a routing table, it looks for the IP address of the default router The IP address of the router becomes the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address 3 The sender is a router that has received a datagram destined for a host on another network It checks its routing table and finds the IP address of the next router The IP address of the next router becomes the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address 4 The sender is a router that has received a datagram destined for a host on the same network The destination IP address of the datagram becomes the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address
An ARP request is broadcast; an ARP reply is unicast
Example 211
A host with IP address 130234320 and physical address B2:34:55: 10:22: 10 has a packet to send to another host with IP address 130234325 and physical address A4:6E:F4:59:83:AB (which is unknown to the first host) The two hosts are on the same Ethernet network Show the ARP request and reply packets encapsulated in Ethernet frames
SECTION 211
ADDRESS MAPPlNG
Solution
Figure 215 shows the ARP request and reply packets Note that the ARP data field in this case is 28 bytes, and that the individual addresses do not fit in the 4-byte boundary That is why we do not show the regular 4-byte boundaries for these addresses
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