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IGMP
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IGMP is a group management protocol It helps a multicast router create and update a list of loyal members related to each router interface
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IGMP Messages
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IOMP has gone through two versions We discuss IOMPv2, the current version IOMPv2 has three types of messages: the query, the membership report, and the leave report There are two types of query messages: general and special (see Figure 2116)
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Figure 2116 IGMP message types
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Figure 2117 shows the format of an IOMP (version 2) message
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Figure 2117 IGMP message fonnat
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8 bits Type 8 bits
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8 bits
8 bits
~axim~ response
time
Group address in membership and leave reports and special query; alIOs in general query
Type This 8-bit field defines the type of message, as shown in Table 211 The value of the type is shown in both hexadecimal and binary notation Table 211
IGMP type field
Type
General or special query Membership report Leave report
Value
Ox 11
Ox16 or 00010110 Ox17 or 00010111
Maximum Response Time This 8-bit field defines the amount of time in which a query must be answered The value is in tenths of a second; for example, if the
NETWORK LAYER: ADDRESS MAPPING, ERROR REPORTING, AND MULTICASTING
value is 100, it means 10 s The value is nonzero in the query message; it is set to zero in the other two message types We will see its use shortly Checksum This is a 16-bit field carrying the checksum The checksum is calculated over the 8-byte message Group address The value of this field is 0 for a general query message The value defines the groupid (multicast address of the group) in the special query, the membership report, and the leave report messages
IGMP Operation
IGMP operates locally A multicast router connected to a network has a list of multicast addresses of the groups with at least one loyal member in that network (see Figure 2118)
Figure 2118 IGMP operation
List of groups having loyal members 22570820
Network
23124609 22960128
To another network
To other networks
To another network
For each group, there is one router that has the duty of distributing the multicast packets destined for that group This means that if there are three multicast routers connected to a network, their lists of groupids are mutually exclusive For example, in Figure 2118 only router R distributes packets with the multicast address of22570820 A host or multicast router can have membership in a group When a host has membership, it means that one of its processes (an application program) receives multicast packets from some group When a router has membership, it means that a network connected to one of its other interfaces receives these multicast packets We say that the host or the router has an interest in the group In both cases, the host and the router keep a list of groupids and relay their interest to the distributing router For example, in Figure 2118, router R is the distributing router There are two other multicast routers (R1 and R2) that, depending on the group list maintained by router R, could be the recipients of router R in this network Routers R I and R2 may be distributors for some of these groups in other networks, but not on this network
Joining a Group
A host or a router can join a group A host maintains a list of processes that have membership in a group When a process wants to join a new group, it sends its request to the host
SECTION 213
IGMP
The host adds the name of the process and the name of the requested group to its list If this is the first entry for this particular group, the host sends a membership report message If this is not the first entry, there is no need to send the membership report since the host is already a member of the group; it already receives multicast packets for this group The protocol requires that the membership report be sent twice, one after the other within a few moments In this way, if the first one is lost or damaged, the second one replaces it
In IGMP, a membership report is sent twice, one after the other
Leaving a Group
When a host sees that no process is interested in a specific group, it sends a leave report Similarly, when a router sees that none of the networks connected to its interfaces is interested in a specific group, it sends a leave report about that group However, when a multicast router receives a leave report, it cannot immediately purge that group from its list because the report comes from just one host or router; there may be other hosts or routers that are still interested in that group To make sure, the router sends a special query message and inserts the groupid, or multicast address, related to the group The router allows a specified time for any host or router to respond If, during this time, no interest (membership report) is received, the router assumes that there are no loyal members in the network and purges the group from its list
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