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NETWORK LAYER: DELIVERY, FORWARDING, AND ROUTING
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The protocol requires a new link state update packet to associate the unicast address of a host with the group address or addresses the host is sponsoring This packet is called the group-membership LSA In this way, we can include in the tree only the hosts (using their unicast addresses) that belong to a particular group In other words, we make a tree that contains all the hosts belonging to a group, but we use the unicast address of the host in the calculation For efficiency, the router calculates the shortest path trees on demand (when it receives the first multicast packet) In addition, the tree can be saved in cache memory for future use by the same source/group pair MOSPF is a data-driven protocol; the first time an MOSPF router sees a datagram with a given source and group address, the router constructs the Dijkstra shortest path tree
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Multicast Distance Vector: DVMRP
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In this section, we briefly discuss multicast distance vector routing and its implementation in the Internet, DVMRP
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Multicast Distance Vector Routing Unicast distance vector routing is very simple; extending it to support multicast routing is complicated Multicast routing does not allow a router to send its routing table to its neighbors The idea is to create a table from scratch by using the information from the unicast distance vector tables Multicast distance vector routing uses source-based trees, but the router never actually makes a routing table When a router receives a multicast packet, it forwards the packet as though it is consulting a routing table We can say that the shortest path tree is evanescent After its use (after a packet is forwarded) the table is destroyed To accomplish this, the multicast distance vector algorithm uses a process based on four decision-making strategies Each strategy is built on its predecessor We explain them one by one and see how each strategy can improve the shortcomings of the previous one
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D Flooding Flooding is the first strategy that comes to mind A router receives a
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packet and, without even looking at the destination group address, sends it out from every interlace except the one from which it was received Flooding accomplishes the first goal of multicasting: every network with active members receives the packet However, so will networks without active members This is a broadcast, not a multicast There is another problem: it creates loops A packet that has left the router may come back again from another interlace or the same interlace and be forwarded again Some flooding protocols keep a copy of the packet for a while and discard any duplicates to avoid loops The next strategy, reverse path forwarding, corrects this defect
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Flooding broadcasts packets, but creates loops in the systems
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Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) RPF is a modified flooding strategy To prevent loops, only one copy is forwarded; the other copies are dropped In RPF, a router forwards only the copy that has traveled the shortest path from the source to the router To find this copy, RPF uses the unicast routing table The router receives a packet and extracts the source address (a unicast address) It consults its unicast routing table as though it wants to send a packet to the source address The routing table tells the
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MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS
router the next hop If the multicast packet has just come from the hop defined in the table, the packet has traveled the shortest path from the source to the router because the shortest path is reciprocal in unicast distance vector routing protocols If the path from A to B is the shortest, then it is also the shortest from B to A The router forwards the packet if it has traveled from the shortest path; it discards it otherwise This strategy prevents loops because there is always one shortest path from the source to the router If a packet leaves the router and comes back again, it has not traveled the shortest path To make the point clear, let us look at Figure 2240 Figure 2240 shows part of a domain and a source The shortest path tree as calculated by routers RI, R2, and R3 is shown by a thick line When RI receives a packet from the source through the interface rnl, it consults its routing table and finds that the shortest path from RI to the source is through interface mI The packet is forwarded However, if a copy of the packet has arrived through interface m2, it is discarded because m2 does not define the shortest path from RI to the source The story is the same with R2 and R3 You may wonder what happens if a copy of a packet that arrives at the ml interface of R3, travels through R6, R5, R2, and then enters R3 through interface ml This interface is the correct interface for R3 Is the copy of the packet forwarded The answer is that this scenario never happens because when the packet goes from R5 to R2, it will be discarded by R2 and never reaches R3 The upstream routers toward the source always discard a packet that has not gone through the shortest path, thus preventing confusion for the downstream routers
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