how to make barcodes in excel 2013 Part 5 of the book is devoted to the transport layer and the services provided by this layer in Software

Painting Code 39 in Software Part 5 of the book is devoted to the transport layer and the services provided by this layer

Part 5 of the book is devoted to the transport layer and the services provided by this layer
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This part consists of two chapters: s 23 and 24
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23 discusses three transport layer protocols in the Internet: UDP, TCP, and SCTP The first, User Datagram Protocol (UDP), is a connectionless, unreliable protocol that is used for its efficiency The second, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), is a connection-oriented, reliable protocol that is a good choice for data transfer The third, Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport-layer protocol designed for multimedia applications
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24 discuss two related topics: congestion control and quality of service Although these two issues can be related to any layer, we discuss them here with some references to other layers
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Process-la-Process Delivery: UDp, TCp, and SCTP
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We begin this chapter by giving the rationale for the existence of the transport layerthe need for process-to-process delivery We discuss the issues arising from this type of delivery, and we discuss methods to handle them The Internet model has three protocols at the transport layer: UDP, TCP, and SCTP First we discuss UDP, which is the simplest of the three We see how we can use this very simple transport layer protocol that lacks some of the features of the other two We then discuss TCP, a complex transport layer protocol We see how our previously presented concepts are applied to TCP We postpone the discussion of congestion control and quality of service in TCP until 24 because these two topics apply to the data link layer and network layer as well We finally discuss SCTP, the new transport layer protocol that is designed for multihomed, multistream applications such as multimedia
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PROCESS-TO-PROCESS DELIVERY
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The data link layer is responsible for delivery of frames between two neighboring nodes over a link This is called node-to-node delivery The network layer is responsible for delivery of datagrams between two hosts This is called host-to-host delivery Communication on the Internet is not defined as the exchange of data between two nodes or between two hosts Real communication takes place between two processes (application programs) We need process-to-process delivery However, at any moment, several processes may be running on the source host and several on the destination host To complete the delivery, we need a mechanism to deliver data from one of these processes running on the source host to the corresponding process running on the destination host The transport layer is responsible for process-to-process delivery-the delivery of a packet, part of a message, from one process to another Two processes communicate in a client/server relationship, as we will see later Figure 231 shows these three types of deliveries and their domains
The transport layer is responsible for process-to-process delivery
PROCESS-TO-PROCESS DELIVERY: UDp, TCp, AND SCTP
Types ofdata deliveries
Processes Node to node: Data link layer Host to host: Network layer Process to process: Transport layer
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Client/Server Paradigm
Although there are several ways to achieve process-to-process communication, the most common one is through the client/server paradigm A process on the local host, called a client, needs services from a process usually on the remote host, called a server Both processes (client and server) have the same name For example, to get the day and time from a remote machine, we need a Daytime client process running on the local host and a Daytime server process running on a remote machine Operating systems today support both multiuser and multiprogramming environments A remote computer can run several server programs at the same time, just as local computers can run one or more client programs at the same time For communication, we must define the following: 1 2 3 4 Local host Local process Remote host Remote process
Addressing
Whenever we need to deliver something to one specific destination among many, we need an address At the data link layer, we need a MAC address to choose one node among several nodes if the connection is not point-to-point A frame in the data link layer needs a destination MAC address for delivery and a source address for the next node's reply At the network layer, we need an IP address to choose one host among millions A datagram in the network layer needs a destination IP address for delivery and a source IP address for the destination's reply At the transport layer, we need a transport layer address, called a port number, to choose among multiple processes running on the destination host The destination port number is needed for delivery; the source port number is needed for the reply In the Internet model, the port numbers are 16-bit integers between 0 and 65,535 The client program defines itself with a port number, chosen randomly by the transport layer software running on the client host This is the ephemeral port number
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