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SECTION 231
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PROCESS-TV-PROCESS DELWERY
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The server process must also define itself with a port number This port number, however, cannot be chosen randomly If the computer at the server site runs a server process and assigns a random number as the port number, the process at the client site that wants to access that server and use its services will not know the port number Of course, one solution would be to send a special packet and request the port number of a specific server, but this requires more overhead The Internet has decided to use universal port numbers for servers; these are called well-known port numbers There are some exceptions to this rule; for example, there are clients that are assigned well-known port numbers Every client process knows the well-known port number of the corresponding server process For example, while the Daytime client process, discussed above, can use an ephemeral (temporary) port number 52,000 to identify itself, the Daytime server process must use the well-known (permanent) port number 13 Figure 232 shows this concept
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Transport layer 13
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It should be clear by now that the IP addresses and port numbers play different roles in selecting the final destination of data The destination IP address defines the host among the different hosts in the world After the host has been selected, the port number defines one of the processes on this particular host (see Figure 233)
lANA Ranges
The lANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority) has divided the port numbers into three ranges: well known, registered, and dynamic (or private), as shown in Figure 234
Well-known ports The ports ranging from 0 to 1023 are assigned and controlled by lANA These are the well-known ports Registered ports The ports ranging from 1024 to 49,151 are not assigned or controlled by lANA They can only be registered with lANA to prevent duplication Dynamic ports The ports ranging from 49,152 to 65,535 are neither controlled nor registered They can be used by any process These are the ephemeral ports
PROCESS-TO-PROCESS DELIVERY: UDp, TCP, AND SCTP
IP addresses versus port numbers
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IP address selects the host
IP header f - - - - - - I Transport layer ( - - - ' - - - - - 1 header
lANA ranges
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49,151
Dynamic
65,535
Well known
Socket Addresses
Process-to-process delivery needs two identifiers, IP address and the port number, at each end to make a connection The combination of an IP address and a port number is called a socket address The client socket address defines the client process uniquely just as the server socket address defines the server process uniquely (see Figure 235) A transport layer protocol needs a pair of socket addresses: the client socket address and the server socket address These four pieces of information are part of the IP header and the transport layer protocol header The IP header contains the IP addresses; the UDP or TCP header contains the port numbers
Socket address
Port number
SECTION 231
PROCESS-TO-PROCESS DELIVERY
Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
The addressing mechanism allows multiplexing and demultiplexing by the transport layer, as shown in Figure 236 Figure 236
Multiplexing and demultiplexing
Processes Processes
Multiplexing
At the sender site, there may be several processes that need to send packets However, there is only one transport layer protocol at any time This is a many-to-one relationship and requires multiplexing The protocol accepts messages from different processes, differentiated by their assigned port numbers After adding the header, the transport layer passes the packet to the network layer
Demultiplexing
At the receiver site, the relationship is one-to-many and requires demultiplexing The transport layer receives datagrams from the network layer After error checking and dropping of the header, the transport layer delivers each message to the appropriate process based on the port number
Connectionless Versus Connection-Oriented Service
A transport layer protocol can either be connectionless or connection-oriented
Connectionless Service
In a connectionless service, the packets are sent from one party to another with no need for connection establishment or connection release The packets are not numbered; they may be delayed or lost or may arrive out of sequence There is no acknowledgment either We will see shortly that one of the transport layer protocols in the Internet model, UDP, is connectionless
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